ZAMBIA: Children's Rights in the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle)

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholders' Information'. Also included is the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.

 Zambia – 14th Session – 2012
Tuesday 30th October 2012 - 2.30 p.m. - 6.00 p.m

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National Report
Compilation of UN information
Summary of Stakeholder information
Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

(Read about the second cycle review)

National report

13. The Government of Zambia recognises the negative impact that trafficking in persons has on the enjoyment of human rights, such as freedom from slavery, servitude and forced labour. It is for this reason that during the period under review, Parliament enacted the Anti- Human Trafficking Act No. 11 of 2008. The Act makes provision for the prohibition, prevention and prosecution of offences relating to human trafficking. It is the most comprehensive law in the fight against human trafficking and it domesticates the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.

15. The Government of Zambia enacted the Education Act No. 23 of 2011 to repeal and replace the Education Act 1966. An important element of this new legislation is that it is intended to domesticate the Convention on the Rights of the Child in relation to education. This Act firmly asserts a person’s right to early childhood care and education and to basic and high school education. Under this piece of legislation, Government is obligated to make general and vocational education progressively available and accessible to all persons. This Act also recognises a child’s right to free basic education. Free basic education has however already been implemented under the Free Basic Education Policy and this Act merely provides a firm legislative basis for implementation of the Policy.

26. In addition to the measures that are discussed above, the Zambian legal framework provides for the establishment of independent institutions that underpin Zambia’s constitutional democracy. These include the:

  • Electoral Commission of Zambia
  • Police Public Complaints Authority
  • Anti-Corruption Commission
  • Commission for Investigations
  • Victim Support Unit under the Zambia Police Service
  • Judicial Complaints Authority
  • Ministry of Gender and Child Development

28. At international level, Zambia is a party to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. At regional level, Zambia is a party to the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development, African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. Government recognises the obligations that it has in ensuring that the rights that are elucidated in all the human right instruments that Zambia is a party to are enjoyed by people within the territory of Zambia through the enactment and implementation of relevant enabling legislation and programmes.

37. The Government of Zambia recognises the important obligation that it has in raising public awareness on human rights. To this end, Government has ensured that human rights education is introduced in the curriculum for primary education. Human rights training and awareness-raising has been a core element of Zambia’s state party reporting process.

41. Education and Skills Development: Government recognises that education and skills development plays an important role in socio-economic development. It provides opportunities for growth, poverty reduction, employment, productivity and human development. Zambia’s focus is expanding access to high school and tertiary education. Government has also made further efforts to improve the quality of education at all levels so that appropriate skills, knowledge, attitudes and values required for social and economic development are imparted to learners.

43. Government has developed strategies that will be employed during the implementation period of Zambia’s Sixth National Development Plan to reduce the key drivers of new infections such as high rates of multiple and concurrent partners, low and inconsistent use of condoms, low rates of male circumcision, mobility, vulnerable groups with high risk behaviours and Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT). Some of the programmes and interventions include promoting prevention, intensifying and accelerating prevention of sexual transmissions of HIV in the family setting including MTCT, integrating prevention in all aspects of care at all health care settings and expanding and scaling-up access to and use of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services. Government has also developed the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework which is aligned to the Sixth National Development Plan. As a result of the intensified prevention effort highlighted above, there has been a reduction of HIV prevalence from 16.1% in 2007 to 14.3% in 2009.

47. Education: Currently, the education system requires extensive review in that primary and secondary education is characterised by low enrolment levels and poor education standards. Universities and colleges do not only have dilapidated infrastructure but suffer from chronic shortage of qualified staff. The reviewing and repealing of the old Education Act will result in an overhaul of Zambia’s education system and contribute to making the education system relevant in the promotion and protection of the right to education.

Compilation of UN information

3. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) stated that, with regard to refugee children, Zambia had entered a reservation to article 22, paragraph 1 of the 1951 Refugee Convention and encouraged it to withdraw this reservation.

7. The United Nations Children‟s‟ Fund (UNICEF) stated that the Constitution enacted in 1996 did not define the age of a child. Zambia was drafting a new constitution and bill ofrights with the intent to ensure domestication of the Convention on the Rights of the Child through the constitutional reform process.

14. In 2010, the then Independent Expert on the question of human rights and extreme poverty noted that in particular, groups that were exposed to discrimination on several grounds, such as women, children, older persons, persons living with HIV/AIDS, migrants, asylum seekers and refugees, faced additional difficulties when trying to overcome situations of extreme poverty. She recommended that the Government take all appropriate measures to modify social and cultural patterns that reinforce discriminatory practices against these groups.

15. The United Nations Children‟s Fund (UNICEF) stated that while the Affiliation and Maintenance of Children Act covered provisions for children‟s inheritance it did not comply with universal periodic review (UPR) recommendation 58 (4) in that children not born within the marriage were not covered. Furthermore enforcement of the Act remained problematic as customary marriage disputes and inheritance were often heard in “local courts” rather than under statutory courts.

18. UNICEF stated that UPR recommendation 58 (8) related to improving the living conditions of detainees had in part, been implemented for children. Separation of children from adults in custody had only been achieved in part with children still incarcerated in adult facilities, sharing the same bathing and exercise area and often transported with adults to and from court and police facilities. Prison congestion led to children being held in the same facilities before and after their trials.

22. UNICEF stated that exploitation and abuse of children remained a challenge particularly in addressing harmful social norms. Reported rates of “defilement” of children below the age of 16 years were on the increase as were the numbers of girls dropping out of basic education due to pregnancy.

24. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended that additional amendments to the Penal Code be considered including review of the definition of rape; introduction of aggravating circumstances for the crime of rape, such as when it is committed within intimate relations; review of the definition of defilement, age of the child in defilement offences; exceptions for marriages under 16 years of age; review of the category of relatives who may be considered as committing incest to include extended family members who take care of children.

26. CAT recommended that Zambia extend legislation prohibiting corporal punishment to the family and institutions other than schools; enforce the legislation; and undertake awareness-raising and educational campaigns to that effect.

28. CEDAW remained concerned at the increasing number of child victims of commercial exploitation, including prostitution, and called on Zambia to implement the legislation on trafficking.

39. UNICEF stated that incidences of child marriage were high. Whilst the Marriage Act had established the legal age for marriage at 21 years of age, it left provision for marriage below this age with consent of an adult. Customary Law, under which most marriages took place, allowed for a child to be married at puberty.

46. The ILO Committee of Experts took note of Zambia‟s statement that steps had been taken to finalize the Statutory Instrument on Hazardous Work. It expressed the hope that the Statutory Instrument on Hazardous Work containing the list of types of hazardous work prohibited to children under 18 years would be adopted soon and also urged Zambia to step up its efforts to abolish child labour.

50. In 2012, the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights observed that according to the latest available information, extreme poverty and malnutrition continued to affect a large percentage of Zambian children. She called on Zambia to finalize the draft national plan of action for orphans and vulnerable children. She also welcomed the introduction of a child grant scheme in several districts, and urged the Government to develop plans to strengthen the linkages between child and social protection.

52. UNICEF stated that UPR recommendation 58 (11) which related to assistance to street children had partially been implemented with government budget allocation provided under the Gender and Child Development Division, Cabinet Office. Under the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health, several centres for street children had been established; however integration of services with broader social welfare services remained weak and there was no national strategy for prevention.

53. UNICEF stated that UPR recommendation 58 (12) had in part been implemented, with the development of social protection services, in particular the Child Grant, Provincial Welfare Assistance Scheme and other targeted social cash transfer programmes. Disabled persons were also entitled to social protection assistance. However, access to services remained weak.

55. UNICEF stated that Zambia had responded to UPR recommendation 58 (16) by developing the National Community Health Worker Strategy with the goal of having an adequately trained and motivated community-based workforce that would contribute towards improved health service delivery and the attainment of national health priorities. The strategy called for further training of existing community based providers also building on their field experiences. The creation of the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health and of the Ministry of Chiefs and Traditional Affairs was envisioned to contribute to further strengthening of community participation and engagement and facilitating integration of community experiences into policy discussions.

56. CEDAW was concerned about the high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, in particular resulting from unsafe abortions; the lack of access for women and girls to reproductive health care and information, including contraception and HIV/AIDS treatment; the high rate of adolescent pregnancy; and malnutrition. Also, malaria remained a serious health concern for women. It recommended improving women‟s access to reproductive health-care and related services; strengthening the efforts, including through the Campaign for Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa, to reduce maternal mortality; raising awareness among women and clinicians about the legislation on abortion; and ensuring that anti-malaria drugs were available and accessible, especially to pregnant women.

57. UNICEF stated that Zambia remained challenged in reaching the MDG targets particularly in reducing maternal mortality and child mortality.

61. UNCT stated that an adolescent health situation analysis was done in 2009 and a National Adolescent Health Strategy Plan 2011-2015 was developed. Guidelines were being finalized on standards of adolescent health.

62. UNICEF stated that challenges remained in ensuring access to early learning and secondary education. In these sectors, services were either limited or inaccessible to the poorest children due to user fees.

63. UNICEF stated that measures including the recent amendment to the Education Act (2011) and the introduction of compulsory school attendance for children of basic education, couple with other initiatives including the budgetary increase for the education sector demonstrated Zambia‟s commitment towards implementing recommendation 58 (13) which related to the continuation of efforts to improve the educations system. However, UPR recommendation 58 (14), which related to developing a national strategy for human rights education in the school system, had not been implemented.

64. CEDAW welcomed the new Education Act and the progress in the enrolment, retention and progression of girls at the basic school level. However, it was concerned that girls continued to drop out of school, especially in rural areas, and about the lack of adequate capacity and infrastructure at schools, including inappropriate sanitary facilities for girls. It urged Zambia to strengthen its efforts towards equal access, participation and the successful completion of education at all levels; reinforce its policy on the readmission to school of pregnant girls and young mothers, particularly in rural areas; and put an end to violence against girls in schools, ensuring that perpetrators are punished.

65. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended that the Ministry of Education, should, as a matter of urgency, develop and adopt regulations to prevent and protect schoolgirls from violence as well as put in place frameworks and systems for effective implementation of such regulations.

66. UNICEF stated that Zambia had adopted a number of laws and policies on persons with disabilities. However, while plans and strategies were in place to address disability in most sectors, critical gaps existed in terms of the available information and systems supportive to effective coordination, programme design, budgeting and implementation.

75. UNHCR urged Zambia to integrate refugees, in particular women and girls, in its efforts to promote gender equality and to support the law enforcement and judicial authorities to take resolute steps to protect victims of sexual and gender based violence and to prosecute perpetrators, including through implementation of the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act.

76. UNCHR urged the authorities to make its system for continuous issuance of birth certificates to new-born refugee children more efficient, including through decentralization of the process of reviewing applications for birth certificates and their issuance.

Summary of stakeholders' information

7. JS 1 recommended harmonizing the definition of a child in the penal code with that of the CRC. It noted that CRC defined a child as being under the age of eighteen.

16. CRR stated that the cultural preference for early marriage was widespread, particularly as girls were viewed as a source of income and wealth for payment of their dowries upon marriage. Married girls often receive little or no schooling and have limited autonomy and decision-making power within the marriage. CEDAW has identified eighteen as the appropriate legal age for marriage.

24. CHR stated that children were kept in the same cells as adults; no adequate provision is made for women nursing children. Due to overcrowding, inmates slept in shifts and in very uncomfortable positions. Basic nutritional necessities were not afforded to inmates and this has led to cases of malnutrition and poor health conditions of the inmates. Inmates were denied basic sanitary installations and necessities such as soaps and clean water. Health care facilities in prisons were highly inadequate. CHR made recommendations including providing health care for prisoners in compliance with international standards.

26. JS 6 stated that children are exposed to various form of violence including “defilement”, commercial sex exploitation, early marriages, child labour, trafficking, and neglect. It made recommendations including prohibiting violence against children in all settings, prioritising the prevention of violence against children, promoting non-violent values and awareness-raising, and enhancing the capacity of all who work with and for children.

28. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) stated that corporal punishment was lawful in the home. It was prohibited in private and public schools. In the penal system, corporal punishment was unlawful as a sentence for crime, while in alternative care settings, corporal punishment was lawful.

29. JS 3 stated that in recent years there has been an increase in reported cases of gender based violence and that these cases included “defilement”, child marriage, rape, and spouse abuse. UOCH-IHRC recommended amendment of the penal code to include marital rape.

32. Joint Submission 4 (JS 4) stated that Zambia accepted six recommendations, which were directly or indirectly aimed at ameliorating the plight of children in street situations. In particular, the Government has agreed on a strategy of assistance and prevention for street children in order to protect and guarantee their rights, on allocating adequate financial resources to strengthen and protect the rights of children, and on improving access to anti- retroviral treatment for vulnerable groups. In general, Zambia has expressed its commitment on continuing efforts in economic, social and cultural rights to further build upon the progress it has already made.

33. JS 4 expressed concerns that the approach adopted by Zambia was not tailored to respond to the needs of the children in street situations, in a holistic manner. Moreover, insufficient recognition was given to the role of the children in street situations when devising policies to improve their conditions, which only served to undermine their success. JS 4 made recommendations including the adoption and implementation of a holistic national action plan to respond to the situation of children living and working on the streets.

35. JS 6 stated that children had limited access to justice. Also, there was a lack of legal representation for children, an ineffective child friendly justice system, weak legal framework and a low age for criminal responsibility. The system did not take into account key factors such as participation of children in the process, acting in the best interest of the child, and equal treatment and the rule of law. JS 6 made recommendations including strengthening the juvenile justice system by increasing the existing specialized child friendly courts and by making detention and custodial sentences initiatives of last resorts.

44. Joint Submission 6 (JS 6) stated that children’s right to participation has not been effectively addressed. The legal framework provided limited opportunity for any meaningful engagement, particularly for children. JS 6 made recommendations including that Zambia encourage children’s participation in all levels of school life, and make children’s school councils mandatory organs in schools’ governance structures by 2013; that decision making powers should be devolved to existing community based structures such as Resident / Ward Development Committees which were easier for children to access; and the finalisation of the “child law review” aimed at ensuring that all child related legislation was aligned with the provisions of the CRC.

51. JS 6 made recommendations including that Zambia increase its national budgetary expenditure for health from eleven to fifteen per cent, four per cent of which to be allocated to maternal health and five per cent to be allocated to new born and child care. Also, that appropriate measures be taken to ensure nutritionists in rural health centres, by training 6,000 community health workers in basic nutrition by 2015.

56. UOCL-IHRC stated that although Zambia has made significant progress in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, there was an increase in the infection rate among young women. Also, mother-to-child transmission rates continued to be high. Malaria was still the leading cause of child mortality. In rural areas, the lack of education and treatment contributed to malaria related deaths. UOCL-IHRC made recommendations including the taking of measures to guarantee the access to anti-retroviral treatment for vulnerable groups, including women especially pregnant women, and the implementation of a programme to provide formula for nursing mothers to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS through breast-feeding.

58. CHR stated that Zambia has made limited progress towards achieving its commitment to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015, under the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Challenges in this regard included a severe shortage of qualified, skilled and competent nurses and mid-wives, limited access and unreliable transport for pregnant women in rural areas to enable them to deliver in health clinics, and unsafe abortions.

59. CRR stated that there were “extraordinarily high levels” of maternal deaths, particularly among low income women and women who live in rural areas, which it attributed to insufficient resources and insufficiently enforced policies. It made recommendations including the allocation of adequate resources.

60. CRR stated that sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescents remained inadequate. It called for steps to be taken to increase knowledgeand awareness of, and access to, family planning services without discrimination, with a particular emphasis on adolescent and rural women.

61. CRR stated that unsafe abortion was one of the most easily preventable causes of maternal death and disability. Lack of clarity and knowledge of the law coupled with procedural barriers impeded access to safe and legal abortion. CRR made recommendations including that Zambia ensure that women and health care providers were aware of this law.

62. Associazione Comunità Papa Giovanni XXIII (ACPG) stated that the Public Health System did not have the skills and tools necessary to prevent and treat malnutrition. There was a lack of specialized medical facilities for treatment of severe malnutrition and the shortage of health personnel. Overcrowding of the pediatric wards resulted in the increased spread of infectious diseases. ACPG made recommendations including to provide adequate training to health personnel in the diagnoss and treatment of malnutrition.

63. JS 4 expressed concern about alcohol abuse among underage drinkers, and that there were indications that the availability and sale of alcohol was not regulated in accordance with age restrictions. It stated that there was a lack of implementation of the legal framework; and made recommendations including the effective implementation of the “Liquor License Act”.

64. JS 1 stated that Zambia has taken some positive steps towards fulfilling the rights to education, especially at primary school level. Net enrolment rates have “reached very high levels” and gender equality, at least in primary education, has improved.

65. UOCL-IHRC stated that Zambia was improving its primary education system, consistent with the recommendations made during its review. Zambia has, with the passage of the 2011 Education Act, instituted a national strategy to provide free, mandatory primary education.

66. JS 1 stated the interpretation of what constituted free primary education continued to vary and that the state of affairs was far from providing free education. While the 2011 Education Act proclaimed that there shall be no admission and tuition fees in basic education, it also provided for the collection of general purpose funds and other fees and charges at public education institutions regardless of their level. Also, costs associated with tuition, exam and uniforms could constitute disincentives to the enjoyment of the right to education.

67. JS 1 stated while over the last four years there has been an increased budget for education, concerns remain that not enough funds were committed to progressively realize the right to education for all. JS 4 called for concrete measures to ensure that funding for education continued to be a priority and not just political rhetoric. It made recommendations including, the establishment of funding structures to ensure adequate and consistent funding to all schools and the allocation of extra funding for children with special needs.

68. JS 1 stated that although significant progress in school infrastructure has been made since its review, this progress has been heavily skewed towards primary schools. Catering for those pupils wishing to progress to secondary school remained a challenge, especially in rural areas. JS 1 stated that the pupil-teacher ratios remained unacceptably high and pupils did not benefit from quality teaching materials.

69. JS 4 stated that the quality of education was negatively affected by the fact that: teachers were poorly paid, were insufficient in number to satisfy the number of pupils, and were not replaced when they took leave to further their own studies. JS 4 made recommendations, including providing teachers with competitive salaries and implementing better policy on teachers’ study leave.

70. JS 6 recommended that Zambia improve infrastructure in rural schools by providing them with electricity, safe water reticulation and sanitation. It also called for a reduction in the teacher-pupil ratio to 1 teacher to 40 pupils for basic school learners and 1 teacher to 35 pupils for high school learners, improved learning materials.

71. UOCL-IHRC stated that the shortage of government run schools, particularly in the rural areas, has led to an increase in community based schools. These schools were dependent on NGO funding and fee collection and were vulnerable to financial constraints. UOCL-IHRC made recommendations including the developing of greater collaboration with community schools to develop financial security and resource assistance for those schools.

72. ACPG stated that disabled children did not have equal access to education. They were denied access to education in most schools because of stigmatized and negative attitude of the school administration and staff members. Despite the initiative by the Ministry of Education to give an extra allowance to those schools with special education programmes, only a few schools have a special unit for those pupils with the various disabilities. Also, there were very few special schools for disabled children and schools with special education programmes. ACPG stated that teenage mothers needed to be better informed about the reentry policy, because in many cases they were uninformed of the opportunity to return to school. ACPG made recommendations including enhancing the special education programmes in schools and increasing the number of teachers trained in special education.

73. JS 4 welcomed the inclusion of HIV and AIDS prevention in school curriculum. It called for additional measures to equip the guidance and counseling teachers with skills which will enable them to respond to the emotional and psychological needs of pupils with HIV and AIDS; and recommended special training for guidance and counseling teachers.

74. ACPG stated that the development of a national strategy for human rights education in the school system has been unsatisfactory. In some cases, teachers have no interest in teaching human rights or they simply do not know how or what to teach. Also, campaigns on the rights of the child and human rights in general have been inadequate.

Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

The following recommendations were accepted:

A - 102.13. Explore the possibility of utilizing human rights training and programmes, and other similar efforts to further mainstream the promotion of the rights of women and children (Philippines);

A - 102.20. Undertake every effort to promote awareness of the rights of the child (France);

A - 102.21. Enact measures concerning women’s and children’s rights, with the view to addressing the current problems in these fields (Romania);

A - 102.22. Adopt plans and programmes to eliminate torture and other forms of inhumane treatment and such education should be provided to prison authorities and wardens (Iraq);

A - 102.23. Adopt additional measures, including legislative, to eliminate the practice of child labour exploitation and the use of corporal punishment for children (Belarus);

A - 102.24. Adopt and implement appropriate measures to address the sexual abuse and exploitation of children as well as child labour (Slovakia);

A - 102.25. Prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings (Slovenia);

A - 102.26. Review its legislation to prohibit and sanction corporal punishments of children in all areas (Mexico);

A - 102.33. Address the continued high prevalence of violence against women and girls, including by strengthening training for the judiciary and law enforcement personnel to enhance their capacity to respond effectively to cases of violence against women and girls (Canada);

A - 102.38. Address prison overcrowding and separate children from adult prisoners (Iraq);

A - 102.55. Continue strengthening measures to address and lessen the HIV/AIDS impact on women and children, in particular the mother-to-child- transmission (Thailand);

A - 102.57. Allocate specific funding within its health budget for child, maternal and reproductive health (New Zealand);

A - 102.61. Strengthen its efforts to reduce maternal mortality rates (New Zealand);

A - 102.62. Pursue its efforts in the area of health and education (Senegal);

A - 102.64. Continue efforts to ensure that human rights education is effectively included into the primary and secondary education curriculum (Paraguay);

A - 102.65. Strengthen efforts to broaden access to education, in general, and to secondary and higher education in particular (Algeria);

A - 102.66. Provide for adequate and consistent funding to all schools and learning institutions and ensure accountability and transparency in such funding (Hungary);

A - 102.67. Ensure that funding in the education sector is consistent and reaches children with special needs, as well as schools in rural areas (Mexico);

A - 102.69. Adopt comprehensive measures to combat trafficking in human beings; organize a visit of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons as well as of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography to the country (Belarus);

A - 102.70. Increase the capacity building and technical assistance to enable the country to implement its national priorities including the National Strategic Plan in the sphere of education (Zimbabwe);

The following recommendations are pending or no clear decision was taken:

P - 103.2. Ratify all main international human rights treaties, especially ICCPR-OP2, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OP-CAT), the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, on the involvement of children in armed conflict (OP-CRC-AC) and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OP-CRC-SC), and incorporate these treaties fully in the national legislation (Slovenia);

P - 103.3. Consider an early ratification of the third Optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure (OPIC) (Slovakia);

P - 103.4. Ratify OP-CAT; ICCPR-OP2; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (OP-CEDAW); the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (OP-CERD); OP-CRC-AC and OP-CRC-SC (Spain);

P - 103.11. Step up its efforts towards the full implementation of the Anti- Human Trafficking Act of 2008, and consider ratifying OP-CRC-AC and OP- CRC-SC (Cyprus);

P - 103.26. Establish a definition of the child in accordance with article 1 and other principles and provisions of CRC; increase the legal age of majority of criminal responsibility; review legislation in force and customary law which establish different minimum ages in different sectors and which may not be in accordance with the relevant provisions of CRC (Uruguay);

P - 103.27. Adopt measures to guarantee that statutory law prevails in case of conflict with customary practices, especially in family relations; implement awareness campaigns to better inform persons regarding the rights enshrined in CEDAW; provide training for customary and traditional courts administrators regarding CEDAW as well as statutory law which promotes and guarantees the rights of women and girls, including with respect to marriage and family relations (Uruguay);

P - 103.50. Provide an update at its mid-term review on the number of detention centres in the country containing separate facilities for juvenile offenders (Hungary);3

3 The Recommendation as made during the interactive dialogue was as follows: “Bring conditions in detention centres in line with international standards and provide an update at its mid-term review on the number of detention centres in the country containing separate facilities for juvenile offenders (Hungary)”.

P - 103.54. Adopt the necessary measures to guarantee easy and effective access to free birth registration (Mexico);

No relevant recommendations were rejected.



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