Singapore - Twenty Fourth Session - 2016
27 January 2016, 14:30–18:00
Compilation of UN Information
Accepted and Rejected Recomendations
2. Education (Recommendations 94.1, 94.2, 94.3, 94.4, 94.6)
23. With no natural resources, Singapore has always invested heavily in our people to stay competitive. Education is also a social leveller that enables all Singaporeans, regardless of their background, to realise their potential and achieve their aspirations, thus building an inclusive society.
24. Singapore supported Recommendations 94.1, 94.2, 94.3, 94.4 and 94.6 because we remain committed to providing good education for every Singaporean and creating an environment that fosters lifelong learning. We aim to develop our children in all aspects – moral, cognitive, physical, and social – to enable them to discover their talents, realise their potential, and develop a lifelong passion for learning. We invest significantly in education by providing our schools with the best teachers possible and the most effective learning tools. We have increased our annual expenditure on education from S$10.9 billion in financial year (FY) 2011 to S$11.5 billion in FY 2014, which is about 20% of the Government’s annual expenditure.
25. Creating more education pathways. We have multiple education pathways to cater to the different talents, strengths and interests of our students, and to equip them with skills to meet the needs of our evolving economy. In 2014, the Government commissioned the Applied Study in Polytechnics and ITE Review (ASPIRE) to recommend ways to strengthen our applied education. Based on the review, our polytechnics and vocational training institutes will strengthen their linkages to industry to provide enhanced training for students and enhance their career prospects.
26. Lifelong Learning through SkillsFuture Movement. To prepare Singaporeans for a more competitive and dynamic economic landscape, we are transforming our learning culture to emphasise the mastery of skills and lifelong learning. The Government launched the SkillsFuture movement in 2015. We will spend over S$1 billion per year from 2015 to 2020 on initiatives to support lifelong learning. This will start in schools where students will receive enhanced education and career guidance. At work, there will be training subsidies to help Singaporeans stay relevant in their jobs. Other initiatives include more structured on-the-job training for new job entrants, and SkillsFuture study awards and fellowships for more experienced professionals seeking mastery in their fields. Each Singaporean aged 25 and above will have a personal SkillsFuture Credit account, to which the Government will make periodic financial top-ups. Singaporeans can use this account to fund training courses for their professional development.
27. Ensuring access to education for all. We have schemes and financial aid programmes to support children with a weaker start so that they have a good chance to succeed in life. Early intervention is the key to improving the prospects of a less advantaged child. At the pre-school level, the Kindergarten Fee Assistance Scheme was extended in 2014 to provide more means-tested fee assistance. A Pre-school Opportunity Fund was set up in 2013 to support projects that promote the holistic development of children from less advantaged or at-risk backgrounds. This allows children from poor families to benefit from programmes such as Learning Journeys.
28. Students from needy families have their school fees waived and those at the primary and secondary levels also receive free textbooks and uniforms. For higher education institutions, bursaries are available. The Government raised the qualifying monthly household income threshold to S$1,900 in 2014, which makes the bursaries available to children from two-thirds of Singaporean households.
29. Some Muslim students prefer an education that incorporates teachings of their religion. They can do so at any of the six privately-run full-time madrasahs, which offer curricula that include both religious and secular subjects at the primary, secondary and pre- university levels. Less advantaged students in the madrasahs also receive assistance which covers not only school fees but also allowances for transport, meals, textbooks and school uniforms.
5. Housing (Recommendations 94.1, 94.7)
50. Upgrading programmes. Older HDB flats and estates are also rejuvenated through continuous upgrading programmes to ensure that the amenities meet the needs of their inhabitants as they move through different phases of their lives. We have set aside more spaces for pre-school childcare centres in newer estates with more young families and installed more elderly-friendly features in the older estates since the last review.
6. Rights of women (Recommendations 94.13, 94.23, 94.24, 95.7, 95.8, 95.9, 95.10)
51. Singapore supported Recommendations 94.13, 94.23–24 and 95.7–10 because we are fully committed to ensure that women and girls are protected, supported and empowered. Equal opportunities are available to all citizens, irrespective of their gender. Singapore is ranked 15th out of 152 countries on the Gender Inequality Index in the 2014 UN Human Development Report. We are also ranked 14th out of 179 countries in the 2015 State of the World’s Mothers Report.
7. Rights of children (Recommendations 94.13, 95.11, 95.12, 96.37, 96.38)
58. Singapore supported Recommendations 94.13, 95.11-12 and 96.37–38 because every child is precious. We do our best and devote as much resources as we can to care for them and maximise their potential regardless of their race, gender, or starting point in life. We have described some of these policies in the sections on “Education”, “Health” and “Lower Income Households” above.
59. Recognising that child protection is a multi-faceted issue, we adopt a holistic approach through inter-agency working groups such as the Inter-Ministry Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Family Violence Dialogue Group, the National Family Violence Networking System, Regional Family Violence Working Groups, and the Inter-Ministry Workgroup on Child Protection.
60. Singapore is fully committed to our obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). We are currently considering accession to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Like the other treaties we accede to, we want to ensure that necessary legislation and resources are in place at the time of accession so that our obligations can be implemented immediately.
61. Review of legislative framework to protect children. The Children and Young Persons Act (CYPA) and the Women’s Charter are the key pieces of legislation through which we exercise our CRC obligations. The Government regularly reviews relevant legislation to ensure that we meet our commitments and to provide the best protection for our children.
62. The CYPA was amended in 2011 to improve protection for children and young persons (CYPs). Under the amended law, all CYP welfare homes must be licensed in order to enhance the welfare and protection of CYPs under their charge. The relevant public officers are now empowered to make inquiries into cases where there is reasonable cause to believe that a child or young person is in need of care and protection. The identity of the child or young person subject to an investigation or taken into custodial care will also be better safeguarded. We have convicted offenders for the sexual exploitation of children, and raised the penalties for these offences whether it takes place in Singapore or overseas.
63. Protecting child victims of violence. Singapore implemented new initiatives in 2012 and 2013 to better protect child victims of violence. These include the development of community-based child protection specialist centres to manage moderate-risk cases, the establishment of Therapeutic Group Homes for children recovering from serious and chronic abuse or neglect, care-giving disruptions, or whose behaviour requires a targeted programme.
64. Training of stakeholders. We equip our stakeholders – social workers, healthcare officers and police officers – with the latest skills and knowledge to better protect our children through workshops and events such as the annual National Family Violence Networking Symposium. These platforms promote the sharing of best practices and strengthen partnerships among relevant stakeholders. The Family Violence Dialogue Group has also developed a training roadmap for professionals.
65. Support for families, specifically children, affected by divorce. The Government introduced new measures in 2015 to enhance support for divorced families. The aim is to highlight children’s interests and help children and families cope better with the changes from a divorce. Four specialist agencies have been set up to provide support services to divorcing and divorced couples, such as information and non-legal advice, case management and counselling. New programmes have also been introduced to impart coping skills to affected families and children. In 2016, divorcing couples with young children who are unable to agree on the divorce and ancillary matters will be required to attend a Mandatory Parenting Programme before filing for divorce.
66. Improvements under Syariah Court. The Syariah Court supports Muslim families affected by divorce. From 2015, the Syariah Court will require couples with children under 14 years of age to provide a post-divorce co-parenting and care arrangement plan, and attend a free post-divorce consultation session. The purpose is to help these couples better understand the impact of divorce on their children, and learn co-parenting and self- care strategies. The Syariah Court is also producing resource materials, such as videos for parents, booklets for children to better cope with divorce, and a post-divorce kit on co- parenting.
67. Family Justice Courts. We introduced the Family Justice Courts (FJC) in October 2014. The FJC is empowered to adjudicate and resolve family disputes more effectively, so as to reduce trauma and acrimony. The FJC improves our family justice system by streamlining the legal processes and reducing costs, while focusing on the best interests of the affected children.
8. Persons with disabilities (Recommendations 94.2, 94.11, 94.12, 94.13, 95.2, 95.3, 96.6)
70. Early Intervention. We have increased subsidies for children at risk of moderate to severe disabilities in the Early Intervention Programme for Infants and Children. We are also extending nationwide the Development Support Programme for pre-school children with mild developmental needs.
71. Children with special educational needs. We aim to maximise the potential of every child by placing them in learning environments best suited to their needs. We seek to integrate children with mild special needs within mainstream schools as far as possible. Children with moderate to severe special needs can attend special education schools which provide the specialised teaching required. The Government provides additional resources for children with special needs, such as more transport subsidies, financial assistance and infrastructural development support. Singapore’s spending for students in special education schools has increased by 50% in the last five years.
10. Protecting victims of trafficking in persons and preventing trafficking in persons (Recommendations 94.18, 94.19, 95.4 and 96.33)
81. This Act is an important additional tool for Singapore to deter and combat TIP. It clarifies the legal regime by providing a formal definition of TIP and prescribing severe penalties in a more targeted manner. Traffickers can be jailed for up to 10 years and fined up to S$100,000 for the first offence. The Court may also impose caning. We support these strong penalties because they serve as a strong deterrent against this serious crime. For cases involving children, this Act lowers the threshold of proof so that investigations can be initiated more easily.
84. Protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking. Singapore’s approach to TIP is not just about having effective laws and enforcing them. We also emphasise increasing public awareness of the TIP issue and protecting victims, including removing barriers that may impede them from approaching our authorities for assistance. Regardless of how a victim of trafficking is identified, once a person claims to be a victim or is identified to be a victim due to the presence of elements of TIP, they will be treated as such. Under the Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, there are measures to protect victims such as mandatory in-camera court proceedings for child victims and media gag orders for proceedings involving sexual exploitation. We also extend assistance to all victims. The Government works with a network of NGOs to provide them with food, shelter, medical care, trauma counselling and repatriation assistance. The movement of victims at shelters is not restricted.
2. Protection from harassment
104. Protection from Harassment Act. The Protection from Harassment Act, which came into force in November 2014, is a landmark piece of legislation that was introduced to strengthen protection against harassment in its many forms, which has become a growing concern in Singapore. It provides civil recourse to victims of harassment and strengthens criminal responses to harassment. From sexual harassment, stalking, to bullying in schools or in cyberspace, such behaviour can severely disrupt the lives of many people, including women and children. We decided that omnibus legislation dealing with harassment was needed to send a clear signal that such threats and harassment will not be tolerated.
Compilation of UN Information
I. Background and framework
A. Scope of international obligations
1. International human rights treaties
1. In 2012 the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women encouraged Singapore to ratify ICESCR, ICCPR, ICERD, CAT, ICRMW, ICPPED11 and OP-CEDAW.12 In 2014, the Committee on the Rights of the Child recommended that Singapore ratify OP-CRC-SC and OP-CRC-IC.
4. The Committee on the Rights of the Child recommended that Singapore consider ratifying the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.It also recommended that Singapore ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
5. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women called upon Singapore to ratify the Palermo Protocol.18 The Committee on the Rights of the Child encouraged Singapore to ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction.
B. Constitutional and legislative framework
7. The Committee on the Rights of the Child was concerned at the lack of clarity as to whether all the provisions of OP-CRC-AC were covered in Singapore’s domestic legislation. It recommended that Singapore ensure that OP-CRC-AC is fully incorporated into the domestic legal system.
8. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women welcomed amendments made to the Evidence Act and the Criminal Procedure Code; the Women’s Charter; and the Children and Young Persons Act, which protected girls and young women against abuse, neglect and exploitation.
9. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) noted that, in answer to a parliamentary question, the Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore had stated that between 2003 and 2012, each year about 500 to 600 stateless persons in Singapore had submitted applications for Singapore citizenship, and that each year an average of 91 per cent of those citizenship applications had been approved. In that regard, UNHCR recommended that Singapore: provide UNHCR with up-to-date statistics on the number and profile of stateless persons residing in Singapore and statistics, by year, on the number of such persons able to acquire nationality; accede to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness; and revise its nationality law to facilitate the realization of every child’s right to a nationality, removing the power to deprive children of nationality and closing a gap in the law so that children born in Singapore who cannot acquire another nationality automatically acquire Singaporean nationality.
III. Implementation of international human rights obligations
B. Right to life, liberty and security of person
17. The Committee on the Rights of the Child regretted the imposition of caning on members of the armed forces, including underage volunteers, for various offences under the Singapore Armed Forces Act. It urged Singapore to prohibit by law all forms of corporal punishment in all settings.
18. The same Committee regretted that the Children and Young Persons Act still did not cover children between the ages of 16 and 18. It recommended that Singapore explicitly include the prohibition of recruitment or use of children in conflict situations in the Act and include explicit legal provisions providing for the protection of children who have been recruited or used in conflict situations, or have in any other way fallen victim to armed conflict. The Committee recommended that Singapore harmonize the definition of the child in its national laws, in line with CRC.
19. The same Committee noted that children who had reached the age of 16 years and 6 months may be voluntarily recruited into the Singapore Armed Forces. It recommended that Singapore consider discontinuing voluntary recruitment under the age of 18 and reduce the notice required to be given by underage volunteers to request release.
20. The Committee was also concerned that the recruitment of children below the age of 15 had not been defined as a war crime. It recommended that Singapore increase both the fine and the length of the term of imprisonment for such offences.
21. The same Committee urged Singapore to implement legislation specifically prohibiting firearms exports, including of small arms and light weapons, and the provision of military assistance to countries where children were known to be, or may potentially be, recruited or used in armed conflict and/or hostilities.
22. While welcoming the establishment of the Inter-agency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons and the adoption of the definition of “trafficking in persons”, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women remained concerned at the continuing prevalence of trafficking in women and girls in the country, the alleged criminalization and deportation of trafficked women and girls as immigration offenders and the low reporting rate. It called upon Singapore to enact specialized legislation against trafficking in persons, strengthen its measures to combat all forms of trafficking in women and children, and ensure the prosecution and punishment of individuals involved in trafficking and the protection and rehabilitation of victims.
C. Administration of justice, including impunity, and the rule of law
24. The Committee on the Rights of the Child was concerned at the application of extraterritorial jurisdiction being limited to grave breaches of international humanitarian law under the Geneva Conventions of 1949. It recommended that Singapore ensure that extraterritorial jurisdiction is exercised regarding all offences under OP-CRC-AC.
27. While welcoming the existence of a complaints mechanism for members of the armed forces, the Committee on the Rights of the Child noted with concern that that mechanism was managed by the Ministry of Defence. It recommended that Singapore establish a complaints mechanism outside that Ministry, with a clear mandate to receive and investigate complaints from national servicemen, in particular under the age of 18, regarding all areas covered by OP-CRC-AC, and ensure its confidentiality and accessibility. The mechanism should be provided with the necessary resources for it to function adequately.
28. The same Committee regretted that underage volunteers were subject to military law and trial by the Subordinate Military Court. It recommended that Singapore ensure that if charges are brought against underage volunteers, trials are held in civilian courts and are consistent with the standards on juvenile justice set out in CRC.
E. Freedom of religion or belief, expression, association and peaceful assembly, and the right to participate in public and political life
34. The Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression urged Singapore to review the decision to sentence an adolescent blogger to four weeks in prison for posting a video and a caricature of Singapore’s late founder, former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew.56 The OHCHR Regional Office for South- East Asia released a press statement expressing concern about the conviction of the 16- year-old, Amos Yee, for uploading remarks and images critical of Mr. Lee.57 The Special Rapporteur expressed concern about the physical and psychological effect of the teenage blogger’s time in custody, stressing that his detention did not meet the standards set by CRC. He stated that condemning an adolescent to prison for expressing his opinion was clearly unacceptable pursuant to international standards for freedom of expression and for the rights of the child, while welcoming the release of the blogger, who had already served more than a month in custody, reportedly under harsh conditions that had affected his health. The Special Rapporteur noted that the court’s deeply unfortunate decision not only curbed the adolescent’s rights but also exerted a deterrent effect on others in Singapore who criticized public figures or the Government.58
35. The Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression also emphasized that the mere fact that a form of expression was considered to be insulting to a public figure was not sufficient to justify the imposition of penalties. He highlighted that openness to all forms of criticism was always to be expected in the necessary debate on present or past public figures, no matter how revered by the public. He also emphasized that the reported treatment and conditions of detention had been particularly harsh and would never meet the minimum standards regarding the imposition of custodial measures for children, which should be used as a last resort, only for the shortest possible period of time and only if it is in the best interests of the child, and should be limited to exceptional cases.59
42. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women expressed concern at the lack of a legal definition and prohibition of sexual harassment. It urged Singapore to enact legislative provisions on sexual harassment in the workplace and in educational institutions, including sanctions, civil remedies and compensation for victims.
43. The same Committee noted with appreciation measures to support parenthood, including longer maternity leave and extended childcare and infant leaves for both parents. It expressed concern that the paid maternity leave of 16 weeks applied only to citizen births and that single unwed mothers did not receive the same benefits as married women. It was H. Right to education
45. UNESCO noted that, since the first cycle of the universal periodic review, no specific additional measures had been taken to ensure education for all, particularly for poor children, persons with disabilities and persons living with HIV/AIDS, to promote and guarantee gender equality in educational institutions, and to ensure human rights education and training for the judiciary and law enforcement officials.77
I. Cultural rights
46. UNESCO encouraged Singapore to ratify the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. It also encouraged Singapore to facilitate the participation of communities, practitioners, cultural actors and non-governmental organizations from civil society, as well as vulnerable groups, including minorities,
deeply concerned at the cases in which pregnant employees were forced to resign. The Committee urged Singapore to ensure that all women employees, in both the public and private sectors, are guaranteed paid maternity leave, regardless of their nationality and marital status.
I. Cultural rights
46. UNESCO encouraged Singapore to ratify the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. It also encouraged Singapore to facilitate the participation of communities, practitioners, cultural actors and non-governmental organizations from civil society, as well as vulnerable groups, including minorities, indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, young peoples and peoples with disabilities, and to ensure that equal opportunities are given to women and girls to address gender disparities in access to and participation in cultural heritage and creative expressions.
J. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers
47. The Committee on the Rights of the Child was concerned that Singapore was not a party to any treaties relating to the treatment of refugees, at the absence of a law on the treatment of refugees and at the possibility that a case-by-case approach may lead to unequal treatment. It urged Singapore to uphold the principle of non-refoulement in all circumstances. UNHCR noted that there was no domestic legal framework for the protection of refugees and asylum seekers, including in respect of the principle of non- refoulement. In that regard, it recommended that Singapore formulate and enact national asylum legislation in cooperation with UNHCR to protect asylum seekers and refugees on the territory of Singapore. It also recommended that, pending the establishment of national asylum procedures, Singapore consider implementing other temporary alternative measures to grant safety and temporary refuge to asylum seekers and refugees.
C. Implementation of international human rights obligations
1. Equality and non-discrimination
6. Joint Submission 3 (JS3) stated that although unmarried mothers did enjoy some benefits, they were excluded from baby bonuses, 16 weeks of maternity leave, the parenthood tax rebate, various forms of child relief, family housing grants and housing priority for families.
13. Child Rights International Network (CRIN) noted that any person who was under the age of 18 at the time of committing an offence punishable with death must be sentenced to life imprisonment in lieu of the death penalty.
14. Joint Submission 8 (JS8) noted that persons may embark upon their obligatory military service from the age of sixteen and a half contrary to article 2 of the OP-CRC-AC ratified by Singapore.
16. CRIN noted that corporal punishment was a lawful sentence for male children over the age of seven. CRIN specified that female offenders were exempt from sentences of caning. Sentences of corporal punishment may be handed to children aged seven to 15 only by the High Court, which tries children accused of certain offences, such as murder, rape, drug trafficking or armed robbery. Children aged 16 and 17 were tried as adults and liable to be sentenced to caning.
18. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children noted that in Singapore, corporal punishment of children was unlawful in child care centres but it was lawful in all other settings, including the home, alternative care settings, day care, schools, penal institutions, as a sentence for crime and in military service.
25. The Indiana University Fairbanks School of Public Health (IUFSPH) stated that all imprisoned women regardless of their crime were subjected to high-security measures, which may impact the women’s emotional and mental health. IUFSPH also noted that there was no special assessment tool to determine whether a female prisoner was in need of mental health services.
30. CRIN noted that the minimum age of criminal responsibility in Singapore was seven years old. Children aged seven to 15 were considered juveniles, while children over the age of 15 were tried as adults. Children over that age were liable to be sentenced to life imprisonment for a number of offences.
9. Right to health
63. JS1 recommended that Singapore implement anti-discriminatory guidelines in all healthcare and social service institutions; protect the rights of LGBTI service-users, as well as adopt international guidelines on providing sexual health information, prevention and treatment for LGBTI persons, especially LGBT youth. JS1 also recommended that Singapore outlaw all clinical practices that involve conversion therapy or practices that are discriminatory towards LGBTI-identified persons. JS1 further recommended that Singapore reinstate sex reassignment surgeries in public hospitals and allow Medisave and Medishield Life coverage for these procedures.
10. Right to education
66. JS1 recommended that Singapore introduce comprehensive and evidence-based sexuality and sexual health programmes to all schools to include LGBTI-related issues.
11. Persons with disabilities
67. JS7 stated that the Compulsory Education Act did not include children with disabilities. The Government provided financial support up to 4 times that of a ‘normal’ child. But the affordability of special education and accommodation of the needs of persons with disabilities remained unclear, including how adequately parents are supported in this process. Where accessibility is concerned, only around 80 per cent of bus routes were wheel-chair accessible. JS7 also noted that there was no adequate holistic planning to remove barriers to accessibility, so that connections between individual components of the transport network or from transport nodes to nearby locations were disabled-accessible. JS7 further noted that not all government schools were fully wheelchair- accessible.
Accepted and Rejected Recommendations
Singapore supports the following recommendations
166.35 Complete the process of accession to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Kyrgyzstan);
166.36 Ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular its Optional Protocol on the sale of children (Senegal);
166.38 Accede to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Ecuador); Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Australia) (Paraguay);
166.39 Consider accession to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Albania);
166.40 Continue to work towards completion of necessary internal processes so that it may accede to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Bahamas);
166.41 Speed up the consideration of accession to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Belarus);
166.98 Consider enshrining in law, protection for rights for 16- to 18-year- olds, either by amending the Children and Young Persons Act or through other legislation (Jamaica);
166.108 Take steps to carry out recommendations with regard to the implementation of commitments under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Slovakia);
166.141 Continue ensuring the rights of women and girls through their empowerment and participation in society (Nicaragua);
166.148 Enhance efforts to promote gender equality and combat all forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls (Italy);
166.149 Pursue its efforts to providing women and children with all their rights (Kuwait);
166.174 Continue efforts to protect children against violence (Algeria); 166.175 Take additional measures to protect child victims of violence(Kyrgyzstan);
166.179 Take adequate measures to prevent trafficking in women and children and to strengthen the protection of victims of human trafficking (Serbia);
166.180 Consolidate the progress already made in the fight against human trafficking by guaranteeing the prosecution and punishment of the perpetrators and the protection and rehabilitation of victims (Spain);
166.181 Continue efforts to combat human trafficking and to protect victims of such crimes, especially women and children (Sri Lanka);
166.187 Continue its efforts to guarantee the protection and rehabilitation of the victims of trafficking in persons, especially for women and children (Holy See);
166.220 Improve access to education and health-care services of vulnerable people, including women and children from low and middle income families (Lao People’s Democratic Republic);
166.222 Continue to develop inclusive education and strengthen life-long education (Belarus);
166.223 Take further steps to ensure its people, especially children, will continue to enjoy access to affordable education (Brunei Darussalam);
166.224 Continue developing programmes aimed at providing equal access to quality education for vulnerable groups, with a special emphasis on the inclusion of persons with disabilities and children under poverty conditions guaranteeing gender equality (Chile);
166.225 Adopt further measures to ensure the full enjoyment of rights of persons with disabilities, particularly in education and access to services (Israel);
166.227 Continue its efforts to improve health care, education and care provided for persons with disabilities (Saudi Arabia);
166.228 Ensure that the Compulsory Education Act provides for children with disabilities (Uganda);
166.231 Continue and strengthen efforts to integrate children with disabilities to mainstream education (Maldives);
166.232 Take appropriate measures to ensure that mandatory basic education includes children with disabilities (Kuwait);
166.234 Enact laws covering the right of children to acquire nationality, in particular those born in Singapore who cannot obtain another nationality (Panama);
Singapore also supports the following recommendation in part:
166.23 Consider the possibility of acceding to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children (Egypt);