PERU: Children's Rights in the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle)

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholders' Information'. Also included is the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.

 Peru – 14th Session – 2012
Thursday 1st November 2012 - 9.00 a.m. - 12.30 p.m

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National Report
Compilation of UN information
Summary of Stakeholder information
Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

(Read about the first cycle review)

National report

42. “Línea 100”, the national telephone helpline that provides advice free of charge to children and adolescents on violence and other matters and is run by the PNCVFS, handled 86,305 telephone calls from July 2006 to December 2011. Another step taken to eradicate violence against women was the establishment of women’s police units, which numbered 28 nationwide in 2012.

46. From 2008 to 2011, the Public Prosecution Service recorded 857 cases with a total of 1,703 alleged victims, of whom 80.9 per cent (1,378) were women and 59.8 per cent (1,019), minors. Of the latter cases, 53.4 per cent (544) involve trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation. Minors aged 13 to 17 account for 53.8 per cent of the total number of victims. Since children and adolescents are the most at risk for trafficking, in 2010 a guide to procedures for interviewing children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse, exploitation and trafficking for purposes of exploitation was adopted in order to prevent this group from being doubly victimized.

48. In 2009, national regulations for transport administration were adopted, under which full identification must be provided for children and adolescents travelling on land transport throughout the country.

49. In 2011, 23.4 per cent (1,650,000) of all children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 were working. This represents a reduction in child labour in Peru compared with 2005, when it was 25.9 per cent.

50. The Peruvian Government has adopted a series of measures to eradicate child labour. Noteworthy among them is the establishment of the National Steering Committee on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour (CPETI), a multisectoral coordinating body for the work of public and private institutions. In addition, regional committees for the prevention and eradication of child labour have been set up; by 2011, they existed in 23 of the country’s 25 regions.

51. In 2009, 446 companies were monitored for non-compliance with the regulations governing child labour. The figure was higher in 2011, when 1,100 controls were carried out. As a result of these measures, 48 companies were fined for hiring 64 minors to work in substandard conditions. In 2011, the Ministry of Labour and Employment issued 1,159 permits to allow minors aged 14 to 17 years to work in optimal conditions, an increase over 2010, when 789 permits were registered.

52. In 2011, the implementing regulations for the Labour Inspection Act were amended to impose fines of up to US$ 27 million to employers who infringed the national legislation on child labour.

53. The teachers for street children (Educadores de la Calle) working with the National Family Welfare Institute (INABIF) try to help children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 who are exposed to the dangers of the street (forced labour, gang activities, begging and sexual or economic exploitation) to return to school and develop their aptitudes and skills. In 2011, assistance was provided to 4,802 children and adolescents through an investment of S/. 1,708,353 (approximately US$ 640 million), representing an increase of 13 per cent, with 556 additional recipients, compared with 2010.

54. Other regulatory achievements were the modernization of labour relations and activities that might be hazardous or harmful to the overall health and morals of adolescents and the adoption of a sectoral strategy for the prevention and eradication of child labour, which was drawn up by the Ministry of Labour and Employment with technical support from the International Labour Organization (ILO). In addition, the new procedural law on labour, Act No. 29497, emphasizes protection of the rights of children and adolescents by permitting them to take a direct part in court proceedings; in addition, it indicates that they have the right to defence counsel in accordance with the law.

60. Under the educational compensation programme, in 2011 the regulations for Act No. 28592 were amended to enable openings to be reserved in higher educational institutions and universities, payment for degrees and titles to be waived and economic grants for scholarships to be provided for victims of violence.

89. The initial report under the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families is currently being prepared, as well as the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth periodic reports under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the fourth and fifth consolidated report under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the initial reports under the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The preparation of the consolidated seventh and eighth periodic report under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women has been completed and will be submitted to the relevant Committee in the near future.

90. The aim of the budget programme on the universal right to identity run by the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status (RENIEC) is to extend national coverage of the identification and vital statistics services through the issue of national identification papers and birth certificates to all adults and children. The programme in 2009 was allocated a budget of S/. 28,000,000 (approximately US$ 10.7 million). In 2012 a budget of S/. 229,800,000 (approximately US$ 88 million) was allocated.

91. Satisfactory results have been achieved with the right to identity programme. By June 2012, 91.6 per cent of minors between the ages of 0 and 17 years had been provided with an identification paper, a higher figure than in 2008, when only 27.5 per cent of minors were covered. With respect to the identification of adults, 99.2 per cent of all those over 18 have an identification paper (29,883,988). Of those 15,007,252 are male (99.4 per cent of the male population) and 14,876,736 female (99 per cent of the female population).

92. In percentage terms, the largest proportion of non-documented adults is located in forested rural areas. In order to deal with this problem, a number of innovations have been introduced, such as free registration formalities, the availability of river transport and the coverage of indigenous settlers by the civil registry and identification services. Since June 2011, as part of a strategic alliance between the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and RENIEC, visits have been made to 69 indigenous Amazonian communities in the Loreto region.

108. Neonatal mortality is an indicator that shows the probability of an infant dying during the first month of life. In 2007, the rate was 11 deaths per 1,000 live births, falling to an equivalent 8 deaths by 2011.

109. The Health Ministry’s Neonatal Maternal Health Budget Programme is aimed at improving maternal and neonatal health by acting on factors such as the management of the maternal-neonatal strategy; public information on sexual health and family planning methods; and the reduction of maternal and neonatal morbidity rates. The budget allocated to this programme rose from S/. 340,200,000 in 2008 (approximately US$ 130 million) to S/. 1,596,500,000 (approximately US$ 614 million).

110. Despite the progress achieved, differences remain between geographical areas. Thus the neonatal mortality rate in rural areas was reduced from 21 deaths per thousand live births in 2007 to 13 deaths in 2011, while in urban areas the rate fell in the same period from 11 to 8 deaths. This indicates a need for more focused action by the Ministry of Health, revised strategies and the establishment of immediate remedial measures.

111. With regard to the maternal mortality rate, in 2011 93 deaths were recorded for every 100,000 live births, which represents a fall of 49.7 per cent over the period 1994– 2000 (185 deaths per year). These deaths were concentrated in the Sierra Andina and Amazonía peruana. For 2011 9.3 per cent of the cases of maternal deaths occurred among adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17, which constitute a high-risk group.

112. Reducing maternal mortality still constitutes one of the major challenges facing the Peruvian Government. It is hoped that thanks to an increase in childbirths in institutions, better prenatal care and the follow-up provided by social programmes to pregnant mothers, this challenge may be successfully met. For this a further effort will be made to implement the National Strategic Plan for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality 2009–2015, through funded activities aiming primarily at providing guidance and advice in sexual and reproductive health.

113. Institutionalized childbirth provides the most effective means of avoiding maternal and neonatal death. Between 2007 and 2011, the proportion of childbirths attended by qualified personnel countrywide rose from 76 per cent to 83.8 per cent. In the same period, institutionalized childbirth in rural areas rose from 49.4 per cent to 62.5 per cent. In 2011, the average proportion of institutionalized childbirths in rural areas was still lower than in urban areas (62.5 per cent compared with 94.2 per cent), so that public policies aimed at increasing coverage in that area will be given priority.

114. According to the infant mortality rate in 2011, out of every thousand live births, 16 infants died before completing their first year of life. This figure was less than in 2007, however, when 18 deaths were recorded. In 2011, the infant mortality rate in rural areas was 26 per 1,000 live births, compared with a rate of 11 deaths in urban areas.

115. One of the measures implemented to reduce infant mortality consists in extending immunization coverage. The National Immunization Programme established in 2011 was the most complete in the whole of South America, with 16 different vaccinations. In the period 2009–2011, 878,815 infants under 1 year of age and 561,885 children between the ages of 1 and 4 received pneumococcal vaccination. In addition, in 2011, 2,033,123 first doses and 1,748,399 second doses of anti-polio vaccine were administered. Also in 2011, 1,990,453 children were vaccinated against measles.

116. The level of chronic child malnutrition among children under 5 fell from 28.5 per cent in 2007 to 19.5 per cent by 2011, according to the international WHO reference standard. Differences persist, however, between geographical areas, since the level of chronic child malnutrition in rural areas is 37 per cent, compared with only 10.1 per cent in urban areas.

117. Under the results-based budget system, the Combined Food Programme (PAN) coordinates a series of actions involving the financing of vaccination campaigns, health controls and food supplements for children under 5, as well as for pregnant and nursing mothers. The programme also provides funding for care in cases of respiratory, diarrhoeal and parasitic diseases, and encourages exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. In the period 2008–2012, the budget allocated to the programme rose from S/. 1,194,500,000 to S/. 2,131,700,000 (approximately US$ 819 million).

118. The national Wawa Wasi Programme (now known as Cuna Más) is a welfare programme providing comprehensive care for young children, focusing on day care for children under the age of 4. Between July 2006 and December 2011, the programme benefited 258,874 children, who were provided with health, food and nutritional care, early infant learning and security, on the basis of a budget of S/. 244,520,717 (approximately US$ 94 million). In 2010, the Technical Standard for Monitoring Growth and Development in children under the age of 5 was introduced, with the aim of fostering the full development of those children, by providing timely and regular monitoring of growth and development and the early detection of risks, alterations or disorders.

119. The education budget has been growing, from S/. 14,569,700,000 (approximately US$ 5.6 billion) in 2009 to S/. 17,563,200,000 (approximately US$ 6.7 billion) in 2012.

120. The literacy rate for the population of 15 years and above increased from 90.8 per cent in 2006 to 92.9 per cent in 2011. The National Mobilization for Literacy Programme, which is aimed at providing reading, writing and basic arithmetic to people who had no access to education when they were young or who lost the skills through lack of use, benefited a total of 3,576,947 persons, for a budget of S/. 679,231,830 (approximately US$ 261 million).

121. In 2011 rates continued to vary according to residential area. While in urban areas, the literacy rate among the population aged 15 and over was 96.2 per cent, the figure dropped to 82 per cent for rural areas. A similar difference occurs between men and women, with respective rates of 96.4 per cent and 88.7 per cent. In order to improve the situation, literacy has been given core status in the alternative basic education curriculum of youngsters and adults.

122. In 2011, nationwide, the gross school attendance rate among the population aged between 3 and 16 was 90.7 per cent, which means that approximately 9 out of every 10 children in that age group attended school. This is a marked improvement over 2004, when the school attendance rate was 86 per cent.

123. Primary education is the second level of formal education which children between the ages of 6 and 11 must attend. While in 2004 on a national basis 90.2 per cent of children in that age group attended some form of primary education, the proportion had risen to 93 per cent by 2011. The net rate of primary school attendance was slightly higher among boys (93.1 per cent) than among girls (93 per cent). In 2011, the highest percentage of attendance was achieved by the rural population (93.7 per cent) compared with urban children (92.7 per cent).

124. It may be seen from the above that Peru is currently meeting new challenges, with the aim chiefly of improving the quality of education. The measures implemented to deal with these problems include the introduction in 2012 of three budget programmes aimed at improving learning standards among initial, primary and secondary-level students of the public standard basic education system, on the basis of a budget of US$ 3.6 billion.

125. In response to the need for basic curricula applied throughout the country with links between levels and courses, 2009 saw the launch of the second version of the National Curriculum for Basic Education. This made it possible to offer common themes in the National Curriculum, such as education in and for human rights.

126. The measures adopted to provide inclusive education for children with disabilities include the implementation of 461 special basic education centres (CEBE) designed to cater for students with special educational needs arising from either disabilities, talents or exceptional gifts. In 2009 21,296 students were enrolled, and 18,240 in 2011.

127. Peru has a great variety of indigenous peoples, most of whom speak Peruvian languages other than Spanish. Guaranteeing the right of access to quality education for this group constitutes the greatest challenge facing the Intercultural Bilingual Education (EIB) system. There are 19,000 bilingual schools in the country, which have enrolled a total of 515,611 initial, primary and secondary-level students, a figure which covers only 11 per cent of existing demand. In order to improve the situation, the EIB model has been validated and a process of identifying educational institutions is being developed with the aim of focusing educational assistance in urban and rural areas at the national level. The budget allocated amounts to US$ 12,163,047.

Compilation of UN information

4. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommended that Peru complete its review of the Code on Children and Adolescents, draw up legislation to prohibit corporal punishment and humiliating treatment of children and adolescents, and improve complaint and punishment mechanisms.

19. UNICEF recommended the development of policies on the social inclusion of indigenous children and those of African descent, taking gender and intercultural issues into account, and a more prominent role for the lead agency for children.

36. CESCR was concerned about domestic violence and the obstacles in accessing justice, particularly for indigenous and rural women. It recommended amending the Criminal Code to make domestic violence a specific offence; investigating all cases; and prosecuting perpetrators.

37. CRPD recommended that Peru prevent violence against, as well as the abuse and abandonment of, children with disabilities.

38. CESCR recommended enforcing legislation aimed at protecting children from economic exploitation and exposure to hazardous or abusive work, and adopting a bill to raise the minimum age for admission to employment to 15 years of age. With regard to the recommendation on child labour, UNICEF stated that trafficking for sexual exploitation took place in some regions of the country.

39. The Special Rapporteur on slavery indicated that the work carried out by children in the mining sector, by its very nature and the conditions in which it is performed, qualifies as a contemporary form of slavery. She was also deeply concerned over the working conditions of child domestic workers, amounting to domestic servitude, which she considered as a contemporary form of slavery. She recommended the inclusion of the following provisions in the proposed legislative amendments to the Code of Children and Adolescents: an explicit and broad prohibition of child slavery in all operations linked to the mining process; a provision that ensures that the law addresses child domestic workers working in the houses of relatives and/or godmothers/godfathers (real or fictitious); the prohibition of live-in domestic work of children younger than 18 and of other forms of domestic work for children younger than 15 or still completing compulsory education.

40. CESCR recommended addressing the situation of street children, focusing on recovery and social reintegration services.

42. UNICEF recommended: that the minimum age of criminal responsibility not be lowered; that care and rehabilitation services for adolescents deprived of their liberty be increased; that socio-educational measures be expanded; and that alternatives to deprivation of liberty be encouraged and a monitoring system set up.

47. With regard to recommendation 18 on the issue of identity, UNICEF said that the lead agency for children should have a more prominent role in this area. According to data from the 2011 population and family health survey, more than 10 per cent of children under the age of 5 still did not have a national identity document. The United Nations system also commented on this matter.

60. CESCR was concerned that a significant number of children suffered from malnutrition, particularly in rural and remote areas.

66. CESCR was concerned about the high rate of teenage pregnancies, the lack of adequate sexual and reproductive health services, and the high maternal mortality rate in rural areas. It also recommended establishing a domestic protocol for the performance of therapeutic abortions. CEDAW recommended that Peru review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and ensure that the Convention provisions on reproductive rights are observed in all health-care facilities.

67. CESCR was concerned about discrepancies in quality and infrastructure between urban and rural schools, and high dropout and repetition rates, particularly for girls in rural areas.

68. CERD was concerned at the high illiteracy rate among indigenous peoples and Afro- Peruvian communities, and about shortcomings in applying the intercultural bilingual system.

69. CRPD recommended an inclusive education system for children and adolescents with disabilities, and reducing illiteracy among children with disabilities, especially indigenous and Afro-Peruvian children.

73. CRPD recommended placing emphasis on the development of policies and programmes for indigenous and minority persons with disabilities, particularly those living in rural areas, women and children, and persons with disabilities of African descent.

83. With regard to the recommendation on protecting vulnerable groups, especially indigenous peoples, UNICEF stated that the indigenous people of the Amazon area were affected by a significant degree of poverty and socioeconomic exclusion.

84. UNHCR encouraged Peru to: bring its legislation into line with international standards; include refugees and asylum seekers in the Universal Health Insurance System and other social programs that would facilitate their local integration; and apply the 2009 UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection on Child Asylum Claims. It recommended that Peru establish a system to identify victims of trafficking and refer them to the refugee status determination procedure. UNHCR welcomed the draft law establishing complementary forms of protection for persons who do not fall under the refugee definition, and encouraged the Congress to adopt it.

Summary of stakeholders' information

6. According to the Ombudsman’s Office, Women’s Emergency Centres reported 7,570 cases of child abuse in 2011. In addition, the Committee on Reports and Complaints of the Ministry of Education reported 200 cases of abuse of students between January and July last year. The Ombudsman’s Office drew attention to the need to place the explicit prohibition of degrading corporal punishment of children and adolescents on the public agenda and to establish mechanisms for dealing with such cases as part of the advocacy services provided for children and adolescents. The Ombudsman’s Office referred to the draft amended version of the Code for Children and Adolescents, which is still awaiting adoption. This new version contains provisions concerning the right to integrity and the right of students to be respected by their educators, along with an explicit prohibition of degrading corporal punishment.

18. Joint submission 1 (JS1) indicated that the maternal mortality rate remains very high, particularly in marginalized rural areas. JS1 recommended strengthening local health committees, promoting the role of community health workers, increasing the number of residential facilities for expectant mothers within establishments providing basic obstetric and neonatal care, and increasing comprehensive health insurance coverage.

26. Expressing concern about overcrowding in prisons, JS7 recommended addressing this issue. Concerned about the situation of children of incarcerated mothers and of foreign detainees, it recommended promoting the mother/child bond by ensuring regular visits of children to their incarcerated mother; promoting alternative sentences for mothers and; ensuring access to adequate health care and legal assistance for detainees.

28. The Red Peruana contra la Explotación Sexual de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes (Peruvian Network to Combat the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents) (JS2) stated that the legislation on the sexual exploitation of minors is flawed. JS2 recommended that a comprehensive, gender-sensitive strategy for reducing the demand for the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents be launched and that the victim assistance and protection system be strengthened.

29. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) noted that, despite repeated recommendations by the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the support of Congress for law reform expressed in 2007, corporal punishment of children remained lawful. GIEACPC hoped States will recommend that legislation be enacted to explicitly prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings, including the home, as a matter of priority.

30. JS7 referred to efforts made to eradicate hazardous work, especially for children, but noted that a high number of children still experienced very dangerous working conditions, in brick factories and in mines. It noted that children, mostly aged 6–12, worked under the patronage of criminal organizations as street vendors in large cities. JS7 recommended investing in quality education programmes to protect children and youth from the dangers of drug addiction and prostitution, and ensuring effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and pornography of children, ratified by Peru.

31. Anti-Slavery International indicated that, despite efforts towards tackling child domestic labour, many child domestic workers were subjected to work which was harmful to their health, safety and development. It recommended ensuring effective implementation of the Domestic Workers Act, the Code of Childhood and Adolescence and the 2011–2016 National Action Plan on Child Labour; improving the quality the Alternative Basic Education programme; ensuring access to the National Health system; raising public awareness about the risks associated with child domestic work and; signing and ratifying ILO Convention No. 189 on Decent Work for Domestic Workers.

32. Joint submission 8 (JS8) indicates that the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission states that 12.8 per cent of the population harmed by political violence were children or adolescents. JS8 recommended that a public policy to prevent the recruitment of children be put in place; that a programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of these children into society be developed in order to promote the prevention of recruitment and the rehabilitation of these children; and that members of SL, as well as of the Peruvian army, be punished for recruiting children or adolescents into their armed forces.

34. The International Catholic Child Bureau (ICCB) argued against the idea of lowering the age of criminal responsibility as, purportedly, a way of making the streets safer. ICCB recommended, inter alia, that the Code for Children and Adolescents, which provides for institutionalization for up to 6 years, be amended; that information on the commission of criminal offences by adolescents be properly handled; and that self-regulation by the media be encouraged to ensure respect for the rights of young people in conflict with the law.

39. Joint Submission 7 (JS7) recognized progress to make birth registration more effective, but noted that deficiencies still persisted: children born at home were not registered, especially in the poorest areas of Lima, the provincial cities and in the most remote areas of the country. It also noted that obtaining a Documento Nacional de Identidad (DNI) was complicated when the birth certificate of the person concerned, or of one of the parents, contained an error. JS7 recommended: campaigns to ensure birth registration for all children; training of officers in charge of birth registration; simplification of the procedure for the rectification of errors contained in birth certificates.

40. JS8 indicated that, in August 2011, approximately 17,000 abandoned children and adolescents were living in residential care centres. JS8 recommended the implementation of public policies based on United Nations Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children that will prevent families from being broken apart and ensure that children living in an alternative environment receive quality care.

51. JS7 referred to a deficiency in the reception capacity in hospitals, and expressed concern about the sterilization of women during childbirth and at the large number of organized networks for trafficking in organs. JS7 further reported a high rate of drug and alcohol addiction among children and adolescents, particularly affecting children living on the streets.

54. AI noted that in 2006, in order to prevent and respond to sexual abuse of children, the authorities had passed Law 28704, raising the age of consent for sexual relations from 14 to 18 years. PROMSEX indicated that, since that law came into force, it has had an adverse impact on adolescents’ access to sexual and reproductive health services.

55. JS5 recommended that articles 4 and 30 of the General Health Act, which deny free access for adolescents under 18 years of age to sexual and reproductive health services unless they are accompanied by their father, mother or guardian, be amended and that public policies be put in place that will ensure access to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents.

56. Joint submission 5 (JS5) reported that official statistics indicate that HIV/AIDS is most prevalent among young people. JS8 referred to the shortage of anti-retroviral drugs for adults and children and recommended that supply management arrangements be revised in order to bring them into line with WHO recommendations on the subject. JS9 also referred to community health services for the LGBT population and recommended that universal access to HIV/AIDS preventive and diagnostic services and treatment be guaranteed and that health-care protocols be used that take all the needs of LGBT persons into account.

57. JS1 indicated that progress has been made in ensuring access to education, but public schools on the outskirts of urban areas and in rural areas ask poor families to pay fees. JS1 indicated that access to schooling and the ability to stay in school must be guaranteed and that curricula need to be adapted to geographic and cultural realities.

58. JS8 indicated that intercultural bilingual education is a policy priority, but that there are numerous problems to be dealt with in order to ensure access for indigenous children. JS8 recommended that funds should be budgeted for the establishment of intercultural bilingual schools in all three educational cycles, that a remedial academic programme should be set up for students in intercultural bilingual schools, and that such schools be linked to public health, nutrition, protective and identity services.

59. JS7 recommended guaranteeing access to education for all children, especially those living in remote areas and children with disabilities; maintaining g school feeding programmes to meet children’s nutritional needs and enable them to attend school; continuing the development of quality education by encouraging partnerships between the Government and the private sector; improving training of teachers and establishing a system to encourage their good performance.

61. JS6 indicated that, although the Code for Children and Adolescents does recognize some rights for children with disabilities, it does not recognize their right to freely express their views, on an equal footing with other children, regarding all matters that affect them. In addition, Peru does not have public programmes in other areas that are crucial to such children’s development, such as sports and access to an inclusive or, in the case of children with severe disabilities, special education.

62. JS6 recommended that funds be earmarked for the provision of inclusive schooling for children and young persons with disabilities, technical training for teachers, occupational training for young people with disabilities, the promotion of physical and communications accessibility, the promotion of production projects, and the elimination of barriers that restrict the right of young people with disabilities to vote.


Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

The following recommendations were accepted by Peru:

A - 116.9. Introduce a legal ban on the use of corporal punishment of children (Belarus);

A - 116.10. Complete its review of the Code on Children and Adolescents to draw up legislation to prohibit corporal punishment and humiliating treatment of children and adolescents (Jordan);

A - 116.11. Ensure that the draft amendments to the Code on Children and Adolescents explicitly prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings, including in the home, and that they are enacted as a matter of priority (Liechtenstein);

A - 116.12. That the Bill on corporal punishment of children currently under consideration, explicitly prohibit all forms of corporal punishment in all settings, and enact this Bill as a matter of priority (Portugal);

A - 116.13. Complete the review of the Children and Adolescents Code, and develop the law prohibiting corporal punishment and humiliating treatment towards boys, girls and adolescents (Republic of Moldova);

A - 116.21. Continue to allocate appropriate budget and resources to address challenges such as trafficking in persons, sexual exploitation of children and extreme poverty in rural areas and establish a targeted timeframe for implementing related plans and programs (Thailand);

A - 116.22. Focus the National Human Rights Plan (2012-2016) on the most vulnerable sectors of the society, including women, children, persons with disabilities and elderly persons (Nicaragua);

A - 116.23. Intensify its efforts in the area of social, economic and cultural rights and give a more important role to gender and inter-culturality in public policies, in particular in education, health and justice (Tunisia);

A - 116.24. Continue to work in the area of defence and protection of boys and girls (Bolivia (Plurinational State of));

A - 116.25. Create the necessary educational structures in order that all citizens have easy access to education and improve prison conditions (Holy See);

A - 116.30. Redouble its efforts aimed at combating violence against women and girls, illiteracy and at ensuring greater representation of women in decision- making, both in the government and in the private sector (Romania);

A - 116.41. Undertake further measures to protect women and children, particularly from violence and exploitation (Australia);

A - 116.42. Improve coordination on trafficking in persons (TIP) investigations, increase funding for TIP victim services, implement programs to combat the worst forms of child labour and forced labour, and effectively enforce national labour laws, including laws related to freedom of association (United States of America);

A - 116.43. Produce and publish a plan to eliminate child and forced labour, with clear and specific objectives, milestones and timelines (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland);

A - 116.44. Continue its efforts to apply legislation that protects children from economic exploitation and from exposure to hazardous or abusive labour (Palestine);

A - 116.45. Implement appropriate, efficient measures to protect children from economic exploitation, in particular, the worst forms of child labour in line with the ILO Conventions No. 182 and No. 138, focusing especially on the mining sector as well as child domestic workers (Slovakia);

A - 116.46. Continue its efforts, in cooperation with UNICEF and relevant international organizations, to eradicate child labour (Singapore);

A - 116.47. Properly disseminate the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour among all central, local institutions and civil society (Italy);

A - 116.50. Establish mechanisms for dealing with cases of corporal punishment of children with a view to effective law enforcement (Liechtenstein);

A - 116.68. Facilitate the registration of all births and promote, in line with article 7 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, birth registration of those children who were not registered at birth, in particular in the rural and remote areas of the country. Simultaneously, provide training to personnelin charge of birth registration (Uruguay);

A - 116.69. Speed up the birth registration process of women who are not in possession of birth certificates and identity documents, in particular in the rural and remote areas of the country (Uruguay);

A - 116.70. Continue to increase the coverage of identification and birth registration services, including in the rural jungle areas (Chile);

A - 116.71. Continue to drive forward the Programme on Access of the Population to Identity, with a focus on women and children, in particular in the jungle area, through measures such as free National Identity Document (DNI) for the vulnerable population, and continue enabling them to travel to obtain DNIs (Venezuela (Bolivarian republic of));

A - 116.90. Include homeless children, especially from the vulnerable groups as priority beneficiaries into poverty reduction strategy (Kyrgyzstan);

A - 116.93. Continue action to reduce maternal and infant mortality (Sri Lanka);

A - 116.95. Ensure access to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescences (Slovenia);

A - 116.97. Adopt and implement a national protocol to guarantee equal access to therapeutic abortion for women and girls as part of sexual and reproductive health services (Finland);

A - 116.98. Adopt the necessary measures to inform women and girls about their rights related to access to sexual and reproductive health services, including the possibility of abortion, as established by domestic legislation (Mexico);

A - 116.99. Continue to develop measures and programmes allowing universal access to education (Cuba);

A - 116.100. Prioritize its efforts on the situation in the rural area, where the number of literacy rate is still relatively lower than those in the urban area (Indonesia);

A - 116.101. Increase further the education budget to allow for the establishment of intercultural bi-lingual schools in all three educational cycles and the roll-out of remedial academic programs (Hungary);

A - 116.102. Continue giving priority to the funding for education so as to attain inclusive education for all Peruvian children (Malaysia);

A - 116.103. Continue the efforts to provide high quality education to all children and adolescents in the Peruvian territory, particularly to those belonging to groups in situations of vulnerability, such as indigenous peoples, Peruvian afro- descents, Afro-Peruvian communities and persons with disabilities (Costa Rica);

A - 116.104. Ensure that the educational system is accessible and responds to the specific needs of child workers, including child domestic workers (Honduras);

117. The following recommendations enjoy the support of Peru which considers that they are already implemented:

A - 117.3. Increase criminal liability for sexual exploitation of children (Belarus);

118. The following recommendations enjoy the support of Peru which considers that they are in the process of implementation:

A - 118.1. Rescue and protect the children held by terrorist groups, develop a programme for the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of these children into society, and sanction the recruitment of child soldiers by the Peruvian Armed Forces (Hungary);

The following recommendations are pending or no clear decision was taken:

P - 119.4. Prohibit child labour under the age of 15, and of those who have not yet completed compulsory education (Honduras);

No recommendations were rejected.




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