NEPAL: Children's rights references in the Universal Periodic Review

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the first Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.

Nepal - 10th Session - 2011
25th January, 10am to 1pm

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National Report

Compilation of UN information
Stakeholder information
Accepted and rejected recommendations

National Report

13. Specific laws have been enacted to protect and promote other specific rights, for example, the rights of the child, women's rights, right against torture and rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs).3

32. The Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare (MWCSW) is responsible for the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, plans and programs on women, children and social welfare, and also for the protection and security of orphans, helpless children, women, senior citizens, persons with disabilities. It mobilizes and coordinates with national and international NGOs in their activities within its purview. A national CEDAW committee is putting in place necessary measures to effectively implement the CEDAW. The MWCSW prepared a strategic document on gender and social inclusion in 2006, which has been instrumental in mainstreaming gender and promoting equality at the national level organizations.

41. Nepal strongly upholds the rights set forth in the UDHR and principles enunciated in the UN Charter. Nepal is also a party to almost all core universal human rights treaties5, eleven ILO conventions,6 and many other human rights related treaties.7 It is also a party to the Four Geneva Conventions of 1949. It ratified the SAARC Convention on Regional Arrangements for the Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia, 2002 and SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, 2002.

43. At the invitation of the GON, various special procedures, mandate holders visited Nepal, namely, the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in 1996, the Special Rapporteur on extra-judicial, summary or arbitrary executions in 2000, the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances in 2004, the Representative of the Secretary General on the human rights of internally displaced persons in 2005, Special Rapporteur on the question of torture in 2005, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Indigenous Peoples in 2008, and Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict in 2008 and 2009.

2. The GON has implemented the free health service in primary health care institutions and district hospitals. People have free access to 40, 33 and 23 kinds of medicines at district hospitals, primary health centres and health posts, and sub-health posts, respectively. Pregnant women are entitled to free maternity service at all governmental hospitals and private hospitals making agreement with the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP). A transportation allowance is provided to those women who give birth at a health institution. Moreover, the poor, indigent, disabled and women volunteers are entitled to free medical service in entirety.

53. The GON is making efforts to increase the rate of child immunization from the existing 83 percent to 100 percent. The achievement in the immunization service has been appreciated by the international community and development partners. Nepal is committed to the "health for all" as pledged in the Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978 and to the achievement of MDGs by 2015. Significant achievements have been made in several areas. Maternal mortality rate has gone down to 281, total fertility rate to 3.1, under five mortality rate to 61, and infant mortality rate to 48. The average life expectancy has gone up to 63.3 years. The GON believes that it is on the right track to achieve health related MDGs.

55. In remote districts, the GON is making food available through the Nepal Food Corporation, a government undertaking, and other means which include 'Food for Work' and 'School Feeding' programs.

56. The Constitution safeguards the right to education and culture as a fundamental right. Accordingly, every community has the right to basic education in its mother tongue, and preserve and promote its language, script, culture, cultural civilization and heritage, and every citizen to free education up to secondary level, as provided in law. The education policy has been structured to achieve this fundamental right and directive of state policy, and MDG 2 by 2015. The prevalent education policy aims at democratic, inclusive and egalitarian quality education for all. The GON has made education free up to secondary level. A bill to provide free and compulsory basic education is under consideration. Communities are encouraged to get permission to run primary schools in their mother tongue; and course-books have already been prepared in 16 mother tongues.

57. The GON has implemented the School Sector Reform Plan (2009–2016). It restructures the school education covering education from grade one to twelve, while specifying education from grade one to eight as basic education, which is the basic right of the child. The National Action Plan on Education for All (2001–2015) has identified goals of elementary child education and development programs, based on four pillars, namely, survival, development, protection and participation. The literacy rate of 6 plus year population is 63.7 percent. There are altogether 32,130 schools where 7,575,880 students are studying. The net enrolment rate of primary level (grade 1–5) is 93.7 percent. Currently, a total of 29,089 early child development centres are engaged in imparting child education, of which 24,773 are community-based and the rest are institutional school-based. The GON has incorporated civic education and concepts of human rights into school curricula with a view to promoting human dignity.

58. To ensure inclusiveness and gender mainstreaming in education, various programs have been launched. These include reservation of 45 percent of scholarship for higher education in medical sciences that are available to the GON for indigent students from community schools and belonging to vulnerable groups, provision of scholarship to indigent girls in Terai who wish to pursue technical education on auxiliary nurse midwifery; extension of day nutrition program to 35 districts to mitigate drop-outs; provision of scholarship to 50 percent girls at the primary level and to all school girl students in Karnali Zone; allocation of quota for 40,000 girl students under annual 60,000 secondary education scholarships; mandatory recruitment of women teachers in a specific ratio; and income and skill generating trainings to women. A literacy campaign with the slogan of "let us be literate and enhance capacity" is being launched with local level participation. Now, women teachers account for more than 27 percent (42000) in community schools.

70. Nepal is party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and both of its Optional Protocols. The Constitution protects children's right as a fundamental right and incorporates: right to identity and name; right to nurture, basic health and social security; right against physical, mental or other form of exploitation; right of helpless, orphan, mentally retarded, conflict victim, displaced, vulnerable and street children to special facilities from the State; right of minors against their employment, engagement or use in a factory, mine or similar other hazardous work or in army, police or conflict.

71. The TYIP aims to abolish all forms of exploitation, abuse, violence and discrimination against children through promotion of child-friendly environment for the physical, emotional, mental and intellectual development of, and protection of the rights of, the child. The GON has implemented a 10-year National Plan of Action (2004/05– 2014/15), covering areas of health, protecting children against abuse, exploitation and violence, and combating HIV/AIDS.

72. Nepal has a comprehensive legal regime for the protection of the rights of the child. The Act Relating to Children, 1992 incorporates almost all the rights of the child, defined as one who is below 16, as enunciated in the CRC, and is based on a child friendly approach. This Act as well as criminal justice system of Nepal is geared towards the rehabilitation of child offenders, through various institutions including children reform homes. Juvenile justice related regulation has prescribed child-friendly procedures to be adopted while trying cases involving children. There are juvenile benches in 28 out of 75 district courts. Six courts are implementing the program for the improvement of legal and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of the rights of the child, which will be gradually extended to other courts.

73. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1999 outlaws the engagement of a child below 14 in work as a labourer and provides for a stringent punishment. A committee of child labor prevention and a child labor prevention fund have also been established under this Act. These measures are also in tune with the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999. Exploitation of children for pornography, sexual exploitation and trafficking is strictly outlawed, in keeping with Nepal's commitment under the two Protocols to the CRC.

74. The GON has adopted a zero-tolerance strategy in relation to child recruitment. Efforts are directed to protect children and ensure that children recruited in armed conflict have access to rehabilitation and reintegration measures. An exodus of 4,008 non-qualified combatants, including 2,973 minors, has already been made from various cantonments, and they have been integrated into society. The GON is preparing a national policy on children associated with armed forces and armed groups.

UN Compilation

2. The Committee against Torture (CAT) recommended that Nepal consider acceding to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees;9 ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict10; making the declaration under articles 21 and 22 of the Convention; becoming party to the Optional Protocol to the Convention; becoming party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; and becoming party to the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non- International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II).11

3. In 2005, the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) recommended ratification of the Optional Protocols to the Convention, the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, the Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons, the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons.12

13. CRC welcomed the adoption of the National Plan of Action for children (2005- 2015),28 and urged Nepal to allocate sufficient resources for its effective implementation.29

14. UNCT indicated that the Education for All (EFA) National Plan of Action 2001- 2015 highlighted the need to restructure comprehensive school education and that the Three Year Interim Plan (2007-2010) aimed to make basic education free, easily accessible and compulsory and establish the right to free education up to the secondary level.30 In 2005, Nepal adopted the United Nations Plan of Action (2005-2009) for the World Programme for Human Rights Education, focusing on the national school system.31

15. In 2007, CESCR expressed regret that most of its previous recommendations had not been implemented.33 In 2005, CRC regretted that some of the recommendations in its previous concluding observations had not been given sufficient follow-up.34 In June 2007, Nepal provided a response35 to recommendations made by CAT on some issues of concern.36

18. CESCR noted that caste-based discrimination persisted with impunity. It was concerned about obstacles that victims of such discrimination reportedly faced in accessing justice.40 CRC expressed concern about de facto discrimination against children belonging to the Dalit community, indigenous peoples and ethnic minority groups, in addition to refugee and asylum-seeking children, street children, children with disabilities and children living in rural areas.41

23. UNCT and CEDAW were also concerned about obstacles faced by Nepali women married to a foreign husband in transferring nationality to family members.48 UNCT was concerned that the draft citizenship provisions proposed as part of the new Constitution did not achieve gender equality by bolstering the rights of women, but rather by reducing the rights of Nepali men to convey citizenship to family members.49 In this context, UNCT alerted to the risk that such restrictions could lead to statelessness in many cases.50 CRC had already observed in 2005 that many groups of children were not registered or unable to obtain citizenship, including children born to foreign fathers, abandoned children, orphans, children born to single mothers, and children from the Badi community.51

29. The Secretary-General indicated that, although the Action Plan for the discharge and rehabilitation of Maoist army personnel verified as minors had been completed by February 2010, the use of children for political purposes by the major political parties remained a concern.63

30. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict stated that many children were still involved in the youth wings of political parties. Friction between those youth wings had continued, with violent clashes in some regions. He also stated that the use of children by the UCPN-M and its sister organizations remained of great concern.64 The Secretary-General similarly stressed the need for UCPN-M to comply with the Action Plan.65

32. CRC was alarmed by the prevalence of child abuse and domestic violence. It was concerned that domestic legislation did neither provide for an effective remedy mechanism nor for designated places of safety for child victims.68 It recommended establishing effective and child-sensitive mechanisms for the investigation of complaints and services for the recovery and social reintegration of victims.69 Noting that the 1992 Children's Act and the 1963 Muluki Ain (Civil Code) allowed for corporal punishment of children, CRC also recommended that Nepal prohibit corporal punishment.70

33. CRC was also concerned about the large number of children who were sexually exploited, noting that children of lower castes, and particularly the Badi caste, were disproportionately represented among sex workers.71 It drew attention to the trafficking of children for the purposes of sexual exploitation and bonded labour and recommended that Nepal develop a comprehensive legal framework to protect children from trafficking; strengthen law enforcement, and intensify efforts to raise awareness.72 The issue of human trafficking was also highlighted by the Special Rapporteur on violence against women,73 and by CEDAW and CAT.74 In its follow-up response to CAT, Nepal informed about measures taken to address human trafficking.75

40. CRC was concerned at the low minimum age of criminal responsibility, which was set as 10 years, and at the lack of an official system of age verification. It was also concerned that children were rarely separated from adults in detention, due to a lack of juvenile detention facilities.87 CRC and CAT recommended that Nepal take steps to ensure proper functioning of a juvenile justice system in compliance with international standards.88

41. In 2005, CRC was concerned about the widespread custom of early marriage within certain ethnic and religious communities.89 It recommended that Nepal strengthen enforcement of existing legislation and develop sensitization programmes, involving community and religious leaders and society at large to curb the practice.90

42. CRC was also concerned that the identity of child offenders, rape victims or children in difficult circumstances continued to be disclosed in the media and in this regard recommended that Nepal ensure respect for the right to privacy.91

47 CESCR was concerned that despite the efforts of Nepal to abolish the worst forms of child labour, the prevalence of child labour, including bonded labour, remained high.101 The ILO Committee of Experts requested Nepal to take measures to ensure that no person under 18 years of age is authorized to perform hazardous work, in accordance with Convention No. 138.102

48. The High Commissioner for Human Rights noted that widespread poverty in Nepal remained a pressing human rights concern, given its link to long-standing structural discrimination against marginalized communities.103 CESCR was concerned that over 30 per cent of the population lived under the official poverty line.104 In 2005, CRC had highlighted the high level of poverty affecting children in rural areas and among the lower castes and ethnic minorities, and those living in slums and squats.105

50. WHO indicated that the maternal mortality rate as well as under-five and infant mortality rates were still very high and that the major challenge was to ensure that all women and newborns were provided with a continuum of care by skilled birth attendants throughout pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.110 CESCR was concerned that the inadequate number, staffing and supply of health posts as well as the cost of reproductive health services continued to place women at risk and that traditional attitudes among some castes and ethnic groups contributed to reproductive health problems of women.111 The High Commissioner noted that free maternity care was provided to all Nepali women since 2009.112

53. CRC expressed concern about the situation of street children and recommended effective measures to ensure that they are provided with adequate nutrition, clothing, housing, health care and educational opportunities.115

55. UNCT stated that the Education Act of 1991, as last amended in 2001, underpinned the right of every child to free primary education with the choice of learning in mother tongue.117 However, the efficiency of primary school education was extremely low and not all children completed primary education. Although a national literacy campaign had been launched in 2008-2009, the goal of achieving literacy for all remained a major challenge.118 UNESCO observed that many primary-age children from disadvantaged minorities and Dalits were still denied their right to education, as was evident from school enrolment rates in primary school.119

56. CESCR was concerned that primary education was not completely free in practice, due to various fees charged to parents. It further noted a great disparity in primary school enrolment between girls and boys and between the Brahmin and other castes, ethnic or indigenous groups,120 It called upon Nepal to not only ensure that education was free, but also to make it compulsory. It further urged that human rights be introduced at all levels of education.121

57. In 2010, the Secretary-General noted that persisting protection concerns in some districts as well as strikes and protests by various groups had a negative impact on children's right to education.122

58. UNCT indicated that the new Constitution was expected to enshrine the right to free education for the secondary level.123

67. CRC expressed concern at reports of discrimination and ill-treatment, including sexual abuse, in refugee camps in Nepal.136 It was also concerned at a lack of birth registration of children borne to refugees.137

76. CRC recommended that Nepal seek technical assistance from different United Nations agencies, funds and programmes with regard to the protection and promotion of child rights.149

Stakeholder Information

2. Education International (EI) further called for the ratification of the International Labour Organisation Convention No. 87 and adoption of policy measures to respect the right of workers' organisations to organize their activities, to hold meetings and to bargain collectively.4 Save the Children Nepal (SCN) recommended that the Government ratify immediately, inter alia, the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption, the Convention against Discrimination in Education and the Convention on Technical and Vocational Education.5 The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO) urged Nepal to sign and adhere to the 1967 United Nations Protocol on Refugees.6

8. ECPAT International (ECPAT) called for the establishment of an independent, autonomous, constitutional institution to monitor children's rights, independently investigate and act on complaints.17 SCN made a similar call, suggesting alternatively a special commissioner for child rights within the NHRC.18 It also called for mechanisms at village and municipality levels to safeguard and fulfill child rights.19 The National Institutions noted that a separate Government Ministry had been formed to deal with issues relating to children. Child Welfare Committees had been formed in all districts with the responsibility of coordination on issues relating to children.20

9. SCN recommended that the Government continue consultations with civil society on policy reform and expedite endorsement of the Child Rights Act, Education Regulation, Child Protection Policy, minimum standards for child care homes and child policy.21

12. The NGO Coalitions cited widespread discrimination against Dalits, women, Madhesi, indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, Muslims and other religious minorities, sexual and gender minorities and other marginalized groups. These groups continued to be severely underrepresented in most of the public sector, including decision- making bodies, the civil service, the judiciary, law enforcement agencies, and local authorities.26 SCN expressed deep concern at widespread discriminatory practices, more prevalent in semi-urban and rural areas, against girl children, Dalit children, children with disabilities, children with HIV and AIDS.27

14. The NGO Coalitions cited 62 existing laws with discriminatory provisions against women and another 49 containing degrading and prejudicial provisions.33 The National Institutions noted that in general women fall among the poorer section of population.34 It also stated that the Government had not met its commitment regarding the abolition of harmful traditional practices, such as witchcraft accusations, dowry deaths and child marriage.35 It called for measures to discourage cultural practices violating women's rights, and to eliminate dowry.36 The NGO Coalitions noted that children born to Nepali women married to a foreigner were denied citizenship, as were foreign women married to Nepali men.37

20. The NGO Coalitions noted that access to lawyers by detainees was very limited. It called on the Government to comply with its international obligations on conditions of detention and take measures to ensure that persons below 18 were deprived of liberty only as a last resort and separated from adults in detention.47

21. The NGO Coalitions noted that domestic violence, trafficking, rape and sexual harassment remained largely unaddressed, mainly due to the lack of a comprehensive legal framework and ineffective enforcement of existing laws. It called for measures to ensure that violence against women and girls was prevented and allegations effectively investigated and prosecuted.48

23. The International Catholic Child Bureau (BICE) noted that sexual abuse and rape frequently affected girls below the age of 18 and often occurred at home, in educational institutions or at the work place. Poverty and lack of education as well as lacking implementation, coordination and consistency among law enforcing agencies were among the root causes.50

24. SCN further noted that complaints about rape cases could not be filed after a period of 35 days.51 It called for immediate measures, including legislation, to protect children from sexual abuse, to establish child-friendly administrative and judicial procedures for child victims and witnesses of crimes, and to ban corporal punishment.52

25. The NGO Coalitions cited estimates that over 20,000 children were working as prostitutes in Kathmandu Valley.53 ECPAT noted that although there were specific policies and laws tailored to protect children, the normative framework to protect children from sexual exploitation was not fully aligned with international legal standards. Child rights were undermined by political instability and a climate of impunity.54 National policies and laws were focused on trafficking and not on preventing and combating other forms of sexual exploitation, such as child sex tourism and child pornography. ECPAT identified the lack of coordination among implementing agencies and the lack of committed financial resources as the main weaknesses.55 It called for access to adequate care, recovery and reintegration services for child victims throughout the country.56


26. SCN expressed grave concern at the high number of women and girls trafficked to a neighbouring country for commercial sex. It called on the Government to establish or strengthen mechanisms to fight inter-country trafficking in persons, especially children, prosecute perpetrators, and provide protection, social rehabilitation and compensation for victims.57

27. BICE noted that the most vulnerable children, including orphans, children belonging to marginalized groups, such as Dalits, refugee children, children in remote villages, internally displaced children and street children were also most exposed to trafficking.58 Due to a lack of adequate protection for witnesses and victims, many children who were saved from the traffickers had been re-trafficked.59 BICE called for effective mechanisms and policies to ensure safe migration of women for foreign employment.60 Jubilee Campaign (JC) called for regulations to provide greater protection to trafficking victims,61 and for substantially increased law enforcement activity against trafficking of women and children.62

28. BICE noted that although marriage was legally allowed from the age of 20, a third of all marriages involved girls below 16. Early pregnancy was often a threat to the health of young girls and their children.63 The National Institutions also cited the practice of making offerings of a girl child in the name of gods or goddesses, and bonded labour of a girl child in payment of loans from landlords64 BICE called for comprehensive national research on child trafficking, violence and sexual abuse against children, and early marriage, and for strengthening of awareness-raising programs concerning social and cultural practices and beliefs which lead to discrimination, abuse, child marriage and violence against children. BICE also called for a national Child Protection Code.65

29. The National Institutions noted that child labour was common in Nepal.66 The NGO Coalitions noted that the number of children involved in the worst forms of child labour was increasing and that there was no Government monitoring or assistance.67 According to BICE, children were trafficked for domestic work, forced begging, marriage, carpet weaving, sex trade and slavery.68 SCN observed employment of children in hazardous sectors such as quarries, brick kilns, mining, road construction, transportation, restaurants and roadside hotels.69 SCN also called for strict enforcement of the law prohibiting harmful practices that violate the rights of girls.70 JC called on Nepal to protect children from hazardous living or working conditions.71

30. The National Institutions observed that some of the children who had been used as combatant or in other functions during the conflict were now spending their lives in the streets without work or development opportunities.72 The National Institutions also noted that children were frequently used in demonstrations and campaigning activities by political parties.73

31. The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children noted that in Nepal corporal punishment was lawful in the home and there was no explicit prohibition of corporal punishment in schools. Corporal punishment was also lawful as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions and in alternative care settings.74

44. SCN called for establishment of a juvenile court and special units within the police, public prosecutor's office and judiciary to deal with children.96

64. Regarding the right to health, SCN noted that although basic health care was free, nearly 40 percent of the population lacked access to primary health care, and infant and under-five mortality was high.146 The ICJ noted recent health tragedies such as the diarrhoea epidemic of 2009 represented Nepal's failure to discharge its obligations in respect to the rights to water, food and health.147 It called for steps to ensure that worst affected areas were targeted to receive public health information, sanitation supports and water purification supplies,148 and sufficient staff.149 The National Institutions noted that the NHRC had widely monitored the diarrhoea epidemic of 2009, adding that the victims had come from economically poorer sections of the population, mainly Dalits. The NHRC investigation revealed that supply of contaminated and low quality food grains had been among the major causes of this unfortunate loss.

67.BDS/SRI noted that sexual and gender minorities, which were high-risk groups for contracting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, were often not welcome in hospitals or health centers.153 SCN recommended that the Government ensure that HIV and AIDS infected mothers were not denied care of their non-infected children and that mothers were provided with additional help to ensure non-transmission.154

69. The National Institutions noted that literacy rates differed between men and women and that it was particularly low among disadvantaged communities, including Dalits and the rural population.156 The National Institutions stated that patriarchal attitudes undermining the equality of men and women and the lack of appropriate policy measures and programs, as well as social prejudices against female education, restrictions on mobility and early marriage resulted in lower literacy for females.157

70. The ICJ also noted that girls of school age frequently stayed away from schools which had inadequate sanitation facilities.158 It called on the Government to take responsibility, with the NHRC, to ensure that schools had adequate sanitary infrastructure for girls and that programmes aimed at protecting the rights of girls were introduced in the curriculum.159

71. EI noted that while there had been some progress in primary-level enrolment, there were often over more than a hundred students per teacher.160 In 2008, nearly half the children had repeated or dropped out in Grade 1. Only one out of 20 students entering the State education system completed education. EI added that decentralisation of education had led to the concentration of resources in towns and cities.161 The National Institutions noted that the standard of education is not encouraging, due to a shortage of qualified teachers, educational materials, school infrastructure and ineffective management in Government schools.162

72. The NGO Coalitions noted that the free education scheme had failed to attract the common people as there was no easy access to schools in rural areas and as the scheme only covered school fees, but not other costs, such as books, stationary, uniforms and food. It called for further measures to eliminate the prevailing disparity between girls and boys, and between urban and rural area.163 The NGO Coalitions recommended ensuring accessible and free education, while preventing discrimination in schools against children with disabilities, children with HIV/AIDS and Dalit children.164

82. ECPAT noted that cooperation between the Government and NGOs was well established and instrumental with regard to child protection. It cited an innovative Youth Participation Programme led by child survivors of sexual exploitation that had opened channels for Government institutions and bodies to engage substantively and hear the observations and recommendations of affected children on action needed to combat sexual crimes against them. It called for such initiatives to be extended with Government support.179

Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

The following recommendations were accepted by Nepal:

A - 106.9. Strengthen the resources allocated to the implementation of the adopted National Action Plan for children for the period 2005-2015 (Algeria); Allocate sufficient resources for the effective implementation of the National Plan of Action for Children (Slovakia);

A - 106.13. Design and implement programmes to ensure the respect for and protection of the rights of women and children, in particular the rehabilitation of women, children and families affected by conflict (Egypt);

A - 106.14. Further enhance measures aimed at protecting the human rights of children, women and other vulnerable groups (Philippines);

A - 106.27. Ensure that all Maoist army personnel disqualified as minors have unhindered access to the rehabilitation packages and ensure that children are not exposed to or forced to participate in violent activities by political parties (Austria);

A - 106.30. Strengthen its measures to eradicate child abuse, sexual exploitation of children (Azerbaijan);

A - 106.31. Strengthen the implementation of its Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act 2007 and its Regulation 2008 (Bhutan); further strengthen law enforcement and the judicial system in the efforts to address impunity, prevent domestic violence, and to protect women and children from trafficking as well as physical and sexual exploitation (Malaysia); combat human trafficking and forced prostitution in particular of children (Germany); fight trafficking in persons, prosecute perpetrators and provide protection and compensation to victims (Netherlands);

A - 106.32. Strengthen implementation of its Child Labour (Protection and Regulation) Act 1999 (Bhutan);

A - 106.41. Intensify efforts in providing basic services to vulnerable or marginalized groups or communities particularly providing quality health and education services and creating more employment opportunities (Myanmar);

A - 106.52. Continue efforts to ensure that primary education becomes free and compulsory for all children (Norway); continue applying programmes and measures for the enjoyment of the right to education and the right to health (Cuba);

A - 106.53. Ensure that all girls, Dalit children and children belonging to ethnic minorities have equal access to quality education (Finland);

A - 106.54. Reach out to parents and parents’ groups to promote equal access to education and participation in local institutions for their children, and to encourage parents to appreciate the value of education and benefits of participation (Finland);

A - 107.1. Ratify the Optional Protocol to CRC on the involvement of children in armed conflict (Austria);

A - 107.11. Take the necessary legal and policy measures to end discrimination, including of women, children and Dalits (Netherlands);

A - 107.18. Ensure that any form of violence against children and child recruitment becomes punishable under domestic law (Hungary); intensify efforts for the effective and rapid social and educational reintegration of child soldiers who remain in military camps (Spain);

A - 107.19. Establish State structures for the supervision, prevention, rescue and rehabilitation in the cases of child labour and mendacity and ensure that those responsible be prosecuted and sanctioned


A - 107.20. Abolish all forms of child labour, including bonded labor and take measures to ensure that no person under 18 years of age is allowed to perform hazardous work, in accordance with the ILO Convention No. 138 (Poland);

A - 107.22. Ensure that the cases of violence against women and girls are duly investigated (Thailand);

A - 107.26. Develop the necessary tools to ensure education and human rights training, notably for law enforcement officials (Morocco); provide mandatory human rights training for its police force (New Zealand);

A - 108.2. Enact a Juvenile Justice Law compliant with international standards, to consolidate the legal framework surrounding the protection of the rights of children and to ensure the proper functioning of a juvenile justice system in the country (Maldives);

A - 108.4. Expedite the endorsement of long-awaited child policy legislation, including the Child Rights Act, Education Regulation, Child Protection Policy, and minimum standards for child-care homes, and take the necessary steps to ensure their full implementation (Canada);

A - 108.11. Review and adopt relevant legislation and policies, including bills related to caste-based discrimination, the Women’s Commission, the Dalit Commission, the rights of indigenous peoples and the rights of the child, to ensure full compliance with international human rights standards (Norway);

A - 108.14. Ensure, without any discrimination, the rights of people with disabilities and others belonging to vulnerable groups, such as women and children (Chile);

A - 108.20. Regarding human trafficking and violence against women and children, take further legislative steps, where necessary, and accelerate efforts for their effective implementation (Japan);

A - 108.21. Develop a comprehensive legal framework to protect children from trafficking (Austria);

A - 108.34. Continue pursuing appropriate, efficient, inclusive educational policies to provide for free and compulsory education to all segments of its society, including marginalized, disadvantaged - and thus most vulnerable – groups (Slovakia);

A - 108.35. Pay special attention to helping Dalit children, girls, and children belonging to ethnic minorities to complete their education cycle, and to ensure their employment opportunities after education in order to enable them to claim their rights and work as agents of change for their communities (Finland);

No clear position was given on the following recommendations:

NC - 108.33. Ensure that education is free and compulsory, with special focus on the enrolment of girls in schools (Turkey);

NC - 108.36. Ensure that children of internally displaced persons, refugees, asylum-seekers and their families enjoy the right to health, education and birth registration without discrimination (Thailand).

No recommendations were rejected.



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