Malawi - Twenty Second Session - 2015
5 May 2015 - 9.00 a.m. - 12.30 p.m.
Protection of human rights
19. In 2012, with support from UNICEF, Government conducted a situation analysis on children with disabilities to gather information intended to provide direction for effective development of programmes for them, following which, a National Work Plan on programmes for children with disabilities in Malawi was developed for implementation by the Government and different stakeholders. The plan, among others aims to strengthen coordination in the development and implementation of programmes that promote rights of all children with disabilities in Malawi.
26. The Child Care, Protection and Justice Act (CCPJA) of 2010 sets the foundation for a number of important children rights. The CCPJA, is the most comprehensive piece of legislation for children in Malawi. Currently, the Ministry responsible for the implementation of the Act, the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare (MOGCDSW) has developed subsidiary legislation to facilitate the smooth implementation of the CCPJA. It has also developed a costed implementation plan that will facilitate resource mobilization and implementation of the CCPJA.
27. The MOGCDSW is also in the process of simplifying the CCPJA into a user and child friendly version for easy understanding and implementation. It addition to this, Government is also developing a comprehensive policy on children. This comprehensive policy is being developed alongside a Plan of Action for vulnerable children that will operationalize the policy. The goal of the strategic objectives of the National Plan of Action for Vulnerable Children is that by the end of 2018, the survival, protection and development of 1,800,000 vulnerable children in Malawi has been improved through strengthened capacity of families, communities and Government and enhanced policy and legislation. In the realization of the plight of the children living and working on the streets, studies targeting children living and working on the streets were commissioned. The findings of the studies influenced the Ministry to develop a strategic plan for the rehabilitation and integration of children back to their communities and families. The Government also joined the Global Initiative of assessing the extent of violence against children and young women. Malawi conducted a Study on Violence against Children and Young women in 2014. The study revealed the existence of different forms of abuse in homes and schools among boys and girls. In view of the study findings, the Government is currently developing a national response plan to address violence against children and young women across the country.
28. Child marriage in Malawi is largely attributed to harmful cultural practices, lack of age-appropriate reproductive health information and knowledge, self-efficacy, utilization of services and inadequate legal protection. In view of this, Government plans to increase age of marriage through enactment of Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill. It is envisaged that this process will be followed by the amendments of the Constitution; Penal Code; and Child Care Protection and Justice Act to ensure harmonisation on age of marriage in Malawi. Some civil society organisations have been implementing programmes against child marriage from 2011 to 2015. The programmes largely focus on legislative reform; girls’ empowerment; and community awareness using theory of change approach.
29. Malawi is also part of the African Commission campaign to end child marriage and plans are underway to launch the initiative which will among other things ensure support to policy action, remove barriers to law enforcement, increase the capacity of non-state actors to undertake evidence based policy advocacy on ending child marriage. Malawi will also be launching a three years project that targets three districts with high cases of child marriages. The project aims at improving access and quality education for girls. The specific objectives are:
(a) Girls and boys in targeted schools are well nourished and able to stay in school;
(b) Increased access to second chance education for both in and out of school girls;
(c) Quality integrated youth friendly services, resources and structures, addressing CSE, SRHR, HIV/AIDS and GBV in place for both in and out of school girls;
(d) Reduction of violence against girls in targeted schools and communities and effective referral pathways in place;
(e) Teacher attitudes and skills are improved/enhanced to effectively deliver life skills based and gender responsive methodologies;
(f) Adolescent girls are informed and empowered to demand SRHR services, participate and take on leadership positions within the school and the community;
(g) Empowered and committed communities will value quality education for all children, especially girls.
30. In 2010, the MoGCDSW introduced the case management approach. In 2012, the MoGCDSW published the Child Protection Case Management Framework. Community Child Protection Workers and District Social Welfare officers have been trained using the case management framework. This approach has generally improved children’s access to multiple services through better referrals and follows ups promoted in the case management framework.
31. There are currently various programmes and policies that support the rights of the child. These programmes and policies are implemented by different sectors related to children issues such as health, education, agriculture, social welfare, security services, among others. Some of the current developments alongside the existing policies and programmes are:
(a) Besides the Early Childhood Development (ECD) Policy: Government has developed guidelines for the caregivers in identifying and supporting children with special needs has, and developed comprehensive training manual for ECD that includes issues of child rights and women rights;
(b) In respect to Orphans and other Vulnerable Children Policy: Government is developing a National Plan of Action for Vulnerable Children. Government has also developed the Minimum Standards for Quality Improvement in the Delivery of Services to Orphans and other vulnerable children. Currently, Government is developing guidelines for caregivers for the operation of Children Corners in Malawi;
(c) In respect to child protection and rehabilitation services: Government are establishing one stop centres in central hospitals and district hospitals. The purpose it to ensure that survivors of abuse are provided appropriate services without further victimization;
(d) The country continues to implement other child rights promotion policies such as Community Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI) Policy; Accelerated Childhood Survival Programme; National HIV and AIDS Policy; Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme; National Nutrition Policy and Strategic Plan; School Feeding Programme; Nutrition Rehabilitation Units and Therapeutic Feeding.
32. Steps have been taken to deal with the problem of child labour. The Ministry of Labour and Manpower Development developed the National Action Plan (NAP) to provide direction for progressive elimination of child labour from 2009 to 2016. The NAP is linked to legislation, strategies, policies and international instruments on children such as the proposed Trafficking in Persons Bill; Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) which is an overarching operational medium-term development strategy for Malawi; National Education Sector Plan (NESP); Agriculture and Food Security Policy; and the National HIV and AIDS Policy; and Malawi Decent Work Country Program (M-DWCP).
33. The Strategic Objectives of the National Action Plan (NAP) include creation of a conducive legal and policy environment through mainstreaming child labour issues in national and sectoral social and economic policies, legislation and programmes by 2014; building and strengthening the technical, institutional and human resource capacity of the stakeholders dealing with child labour; directly combating child labour through the prevention, withdrawal, rehabilitation and re-integration of working children and their families. For child labour elimination, the Government and the other stakeholders have undertaken initiatives that include, prevention through family income security; withdrawal through identification of children below minimum age and in hazardous work; rehabilitation to prevent them from going back to work; protection through risk management; awareness raising campaigns among the society; child labour inspections to spot out the working children; advocacy for change of attitude on child labour; prosecutions; commemoration of child labour open days; setting up Community Child Labour Committees (CCLCs) where they are not in place; where they are available make them live; and formulate the Laws and Policies for enforcement including the by-laws.
34. The Malawi Police Service has developed the Child Protection Policy which includes detailed guidelines for police officers to follow when handling cases involving children both as victims and offenders. One of the objectives of the policy is to ensure promotion and protection of children’s rights including victims of trafficking regardless of their circumstances. Police, through the Community Policing Branch, also conducts awareness campaigns on child rights throughout Malawi targeting areas where children are being exploited and trafficked. Under Community Policing, 71 Police Victim Support Units has been established. Police continues providing both in-service and pre-service training for its officers in child protection.
35. At the Ministry of Education, a number of important developments have been undertaken to ensure that children rights are protected and promoted. The curriculum for primary education has life skills component that empowers the school children to protect themselves against any forms of violations to their rights. The sector has also conducted studies in both primary and secondary school which assessed the form of violence taking place and how success forms of violence can be mitigated. A Special Needs Directorate has been set up in the Ministry to specifically deal with special needs school children.
Rights of women
39. The proposed Trafficking in Persons Bill is based on the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime whose Protocol on preventing and suppressing trafficking in persons, specifically identifies women and children as being most vulnerable. In the proposed Bill, both children and women are given special protection from trafficking.
41. In an effort to improve coordination for the promotion of women and children rights, the Gender, Children, Youth and Sports Sector Strategy has been developed. The strategy operationalizes the priorities under Theme Six of the MGDS II on crosscutting issues and Sub-theme One on Gender and Priority Area Eight on Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment. Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment are also covered under Theme Two on Social Development.
44. Initiatives for the promotion of girl’s education in Malawi are ongoing. Government has introduced equality in numbers of learners on recruitment into primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education; the Re-Admission policy in order to allow pregnant schoolgirls to return to school after delivery.
HIV and AIDS
50. In December, 2011, Government adopted the National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan (NSP), 2011–2016 as a follow-up on the NAF, 2004–2009, which was extended to 2012.
The NSP seeks to provide guidance to the national response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic by building on the gains of the previous policy instruments. The NSP also aims at reducing
new infections by 20% through the reduction of child infections by 30% and adult infections by 15%. The NSP aims at reducing AIDS-related deaths by 8% generally and to reduce child AIDS-related deaths by 50%.
51. The NSP also aims at reducing new infections among people in the 15–24 years age group. The NSP has five priority areas of (a) prevention of primary and secondary transmission of HIV; (b) improvement in the quality of treatment, care and support services for PLHIV; (c) reduction of vulnerability to HIV infection among various population groups; (d) strengthening multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary coordination and implementation of HIV and AIDS programmes; and (e) strengthening monitoring and evaluation of the national HIV and AIDS response.
I. Background and framework
C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures Status of national human rights institutions
14. UNCT stated that recommendation 102.11, which had been made during the 2010 review, relating to the adoption of a national action plan, legislation and policies for the protection of children’s rights, was not fully implemented. A national plan of action for vulnerable children (2014–2018), was in the process of being finalized, but the policy and national plan of action for children, mentioned in the recommendation, had yet to be finalized and implemented.
III. Implementation of international human rights obligations, taking into account applicable international humanitarian law
B. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
28. UNCT stated that violence against women and girls was widespread. Gender-based violence was rooted in socioeconomic and cultural factors at the household and community levels, including social-cultural and economic inequalities between men and women and the lack of empowerment of women. Sexual abuse of girls by teachers in schools, wife inheritance and sexual cleansing of widows were some of the aspects of gender-related violence. UNCT underscored the need for more gender-sensitive legislation and stronger enforcement of existing laws, greater support to victims and increased public awareness and promotion of gender equality.
29. HR Committee was concerned about the persistence of traditional practices targeting widows, and urged explicit criminalization of “widow inheritance” and any other harmful traditional practices that discriminated against women and girls.
30. HR Committee was concerned about reports on the prevalence of the practice of female genital mutilation, and urged Malawi to explicitly criminalize that practice.
31. HR Committee was concerned about the persistent practice of forced and child marriages. It urged Malawi to expedite the adoption of the Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill and to ensure that forced and child marriages were explicitly criminalized.
33. HR Committee was concerned about the high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and that the Penal Code did not criminalize all forms of sexual abuse of boys. It urged Malawi to amend the Penal Code to criminalize all forms of sexual abuse of children, regardless of the sex of the child, bring perpetrators to justice and rehabilitate and compensate the victims.
34. HR Committee was concerned about the high prevalence of child labour. It stated that Malawi should eliminate child labour by allocating adequate resources to the effective implementation of laws and relevant treaties. Malawi should also develop a policy to reduce and prevent the phenomena of children in street situations.
35. UNCT noted that, during the 2010 review, Malawi had accepted recommendations 102.12, 102.31, 102.32 and 102.33, all of which related, inter alia, to human trafficking. It stated that although the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act criminalized child trafficking, the existing legal framework that covered trafficking in persons was weak. It stated that the Law Commission had proposed the enactment of new legislation in that regard and the bill should have been submitted to Parliament in September 2014.
C. Administration of justice, including impunity and the rule of law
42. HR Committee was concerned that the age of criminal responsibility for children, which was set at 10 years in 2010, was still too low. It stated that Malawi should raise the age of criminal responsibility for children in accordance with international standards.
G .Right to social security and to an adequate standard of living
54. The Special Rapporteur on the right to food also observed that HIV/AIDS had resulted in a high number of “orphaned elderly”, who lacked the support of other family members, and of orphaned children being cared for by their grandparents or living in child-headed households.
H. Right to health
56. The law should make reproductive health services accessible for all women and adolescents, including in rural areas, and reduce maternal mortality.
57. UNCT stated that the major causes of maternal deaths included haemorrhage, hypertension, sepsis and unsafe abortions. It mentioned the limited access to emergency obstetric care services; the unmet need for family planning; and the limited access to quality sexual and reproductive health information and services for women and girls, especially in rural and hard-to-reach areas. As a result of the high rate of teenage pregnancy, there was a large number of cases of obstetric fistula.
58. HR Committee stated that Malawi should reduce teenage pregnancies by providing adequate sexual and reproductive health services.
59. The Special Rapporteur on the right to food noted that levels of malnutrition were alarmingly high: about half of all children under 5 years of age showed signs of chronic malnutrition; an estimated 48 per cent were too short for their age (stunted); 30.6 per cent weighed too little for their age (underweight); and 11.4 per cent weighed too little for their height (wasted).
I. Right to education
63. UNESCO stated that Malawi did not offer compulsory and free education for all. It recommended that Malawi be encouraged to make primary education free and compulsory.
64. HR Committee was concerned about reports that Rastafarian children were sometimes denied access to schools. Malawi should ensure equal access to education for Rastafarians.
65. UNCT stated that despite the abolition of school fees in 1994, over 10 per cent of eligible children did not attend school. Net enrolment rates were high in grades 1 and 2 for both boys and girls, but completion rates for primary education were low at 26 per cent on average and only 16 per cent for girls; class sizes were huge, with a teacher-pupil ratio of 1: 107 pupils. UNCT stated that the serious shortage of classrooms forced many children to learn outside in the open; only 20 per cent of children attending school had access to furniture; and teaching and learning materials were in short supply.
L. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers
72. UNHCR welcomed the compulsory universal birth registration process launched in 2012, and recommended that Malawi consider issuing birth certificates to children of refugees and asylum seekers born on its territory.
I. Information provided by the national human rights institution of the State under review accredited in full compliance with the Paris Principles
6. MHRC stated that Parliament enacted the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act of 2010, which inter alia criminalised child trafficking and exploitation and improved the child justice system. However, there has been little progress in developing a national action plan for children.
8. MHRC stated that while Malawi rejected a recommendation to make primary education compulsory, it enacted the Education Act in 2013 which guarantees compulsory, universal and free primary education.
II. Information provided by other stakeholders
A. Background and framework
2. Constitutional and legislative framework
11. HRW stated that at the 2010 Review, Malawi indicated that it was committed to enacting the Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill which would provide stronger protections from child marriages and forced marriage, and prescribe 18 years as the minimum marriage age for marriage. However, this Bill was yet to be enacted. HRW recommended that Malawi take the necessary legislative steps to enact this Bill. Centre for Reproductive Rights (CRR) made a similar recommendation, and further recommended an amendment to the Constitution to reflect a minimum age of 18 years for marriage.
13. Joint Submission 3 (JS 3) stated that the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act of 2010 defined a child as a person below the age of 16 years. Persons between the ages of 16 to 18 years did not enjoy the rights and protections granted to children.
3. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
17. JS 3 stated that national action plans focusing on specific areas in relation to children have been put in place, such as the National Action Plan for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. However, those individual national action plans did not offer a comprehensive, holistic and cross-sector coordination of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other related instruments.
C. Implementation of international human rights obligations, taking into account applicable international humanitarian law
1. Equality and non-discrimination
22. JS 3 stated that children were not registered at birth which denied them of their national identities, put them in a situation of statelessness, and deprived them of their basic rights.
2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
31. JS 7 referred to recommendation 102.28, which called for “effective measures to address the problems of impunity and violence against women and girls”, and stated that no such measures were put in place.
34. HRW stated that victims of child marriage faced many barriers in getting help from the authorities. Many girls and women did not know of their rights. They did not know where to seek assistance, and went to their families or traditional authorities, who often failed them. The absence of clear legislation meant that most matters relating to marriage, divorce, maintenance payments, and domestic violence were handled through customary procedures that discriminated against women and therefore failed to provide adequate redress to survivors of gender-based violence. HRW recommended that Malawi create a national action plan to combat child marriage, with input from women’s and children’s rights groups, health professionals, and other service providers. The implementation of the plan should be coordinated among all relevant ministries. Malawi should ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to implement the plan. HRW also recommended regular training for police and prosecutors on their responsibilities to investigate and prosecute violence against women, including child marriage, under the applicable law.
35. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) stated that during the 2010 Review, Malawi received a recommendation to inter alia “enact legislation to ensure the complete prohibition of corporal punishment.” However, Malawi did not respond to this aspect of the recommendation. GIEACPC stated that while corporal punishment of children was unlawful in schools, the penal system and in state provided alternative care settings and day care, it was not prohibited in the home and in private alternative care and in private day care settings.
36. GIEACPC stated that since the 2010 Review, Malawi enacted the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act 2010, but the legislation did not prohibit corporal punishment. It added that in reporting to the Human Rights Committee in 2014, Malawi had stated that article 19 of the Constitution prohibited corporal punishment, including in the home and alternative care settings. However, that provision specifically prohibited corporal punishment “in connection with any judicial proceedings or any other proceedings before any organ of the state”. GIEACPC stated that it was difficult to see how article 19 of the Constitution could be interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment by parents in childrearing and in other private and non-Government forms of care.
37. GIEACPC stated that a Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill was under discussion, which provided immediate opportunities for ensuring that children are legally protected from corporal punishment in all settings, including the home.
38. JS 3 stated that children were trafficked within Malawi and to neighbouring countries for the purposes of child labour and prostitution. In Malawi, trafficking of children was influenced by the demand for cheap labour on farms and estates.
3. Administration of justice, including impunity, and the rule of law
42. JS 3 stated that the Child Care Protection and Justice Act 2010 was not effectively implemented across the country. Only a few members of the child justice institutions such as police officers, social welfare officers and magistrates had the knowledge and skills to enforce this legislation. Despite the presence of child magistrates, there were instances when cases in the Child Justice Courts were heard in open court.
43. JS 3 stated that despite a comprehensive child justice system being in place through the National Child Justice Forum, justice on issues of children remained a challenge. Notable weaknesses included delay in concluding cases. JS 3 stated that there was weak enforcement of laws, and numerous reported cases of violence against children remained un-concluded. Also, alleged perpetrators were easily released on bail.
44. JS 3 stated that the minimum age of criminal responsibility for children was 10 years, which was not in line with international and regional standards.
7. Right to health
59. Joint Submission 5 (JS 5) applauded the Government for seeking review of the abortion law but noted that until the law is revised rates of death and injury from unsafe abortion will remain high. It stated that a revised abortion law should not contain barriers that will hinder access to safe abortions. In particular, the revised law: (a) must not limit the type of provider that can provide abortions, as abortions can be provided by a range of trained health care providers, including nurses and mid-wives; (b) must take into account the current health care delivery system and ensure that local clinics, are not precluded from providing abortion services; and (c) must ensure that adolescent girls are able to consent to confidential abortion care, without parental authorization.
8. Right to education
66. Office International de l'Enseignement Catholique (OIEC) referred to recommendation 102.60, which related to making “education one of its top priorities” and for which Malawi had expressed support; and stated that education was yet to become a priority. Learning conditions remained very poor, especially in primary schools. There was a shortage of textbooks and thousands of pupils sat on the floor because of insufficient desks and chairs. Teachers were unable to teach effectively because of overcrowded classrooms. School uniforms were expensive for the average family. OIEC made recommendations including increasing the budget for education in order to finance teaching and learning materials, to build more classrooms, to increase the number of teachers and to provide them with decent salaries. It also recommended including all stakeholders in planning and developing the curriculum; abolishing the requirement of school uniform in primary schools; providing adequate textbooks for all subjects; and increasing grants to secondary schools, schools for deaf children, as well as non-profit private schools.
9. Cultural rights
68. JS 6 stated that there were several indigenous languages spoken in Malawi including Chichewa, Chitumbuka, Chiyawo, Chilhomwe, Chisena, Kyangonde, Chitonga and Chilambiya. The 2013 Education Act empowered the Minister of Education to choose any language as a medium of instruction in schools. The Minister determined that English would be the sole language of instruction. JS 6 called on Malawi to take measures in the field of education to protect and promote linguistic diversity and ensure that children are provided with the opportunity to access mother language education.
The following recommendations have been examined by Malawi and enjoy its support:
110.11 Speed up the revision of the Constitution of the Republic of Malawi and ensure harmonization of laws in line with its international obligations regarding the definition of the child (Slovakia);
110.13 Seek to amend the Penal Code to criminalize all forms of sexual abuse of children, regardless of the sex of the child, bring perpetrators to justice and rehabilitate and compensate the victims (Egypt);
110.14 Amend the Penal Code to criminalize all forms of sexual abuse of children regardless of the sex of the child, as currently not all forms of sexual abuse against boys are criminalized (Canada);
110.15 Amend the Criminal Code to criminalize all forms of sexual abuse to children (Chile);
110.16 Amend the Penal Code in order to criminalize all forms of sexual abuse of children, regardless of the sex of the child, and bring the perpetrators to justice (Slovenia);
110.17 Consider possible means of a stricter enforcement of existing laws, with a view to combating different forms of violence against women and girls (Egypt);
110.23 Take the necessary steps for the effective implementation of the law on marriage, divorce and family relations, in order to set the minimum age for marriage at 18 and to contribute to combating forced or early marriages (Mexico);
110.29 Continue strengthening the capacity of Government institutions on human rights and to implement the strategies and plans, especially on child labour (Sudan);
110.38 Continue the efforts in fighting social inequalities and poverty, especially of women and children, by promoting the respect for fundamental human rights and adopting policies that provide favourable conditions of work, in line with international human rights law (Holy See);
110.40 Provide financial support to the implementation of the plan of action for vulnerable children (Morocco);
110.41 Expedite work on the formulation and implementation of the national plan of action for vulnerable children, which aims at benefitting 1.8 million vulnerable children in Malawi (Sri Lanka);
110.42 Further increase efforts in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child (Armenia);
110.43 Adopt a comprehensive global policy on children as well as a law and an action plan to implement this policy (Cabo Verde);
110.44 Implement public policies to seek greater gender equality, both in political life and in the enjoyment of rights by women and girls under equal conditions (Costa Rica);
110.65 Take steps necessary to advance equal education and employment opportunities for women and girls and eliminate the worst forms of child labour (United States of America);
110.66 Launch a broad public awareness and education campaign among the population and authorities in order to ensure effectiveness of the new legislative framework prohibiting child marriage at less than 18 years of age (Luxembourg);
110.72 Take all necessary measures to protect and promote the right of children, including their right to acquire a nationality and to be registered at birth, combat child marriages and finalize the implementation of the national plan of action for vulnerable children for the period 2014-2018 (Namibia);
110.86 Put in place necessary mechanisms to ensure successful implementation of various strategies and legal reforms being considered to end child marriage (Mauritius);
110.87 Strengthen the legal and institutional framework to fight against child marriage (Algeria);
110.88 Develop and implement a comprehensive national action plan to prevent and address the consequences of child marriage by, inter alia, ensuring the investigation and prosecution of domestic violence against women and revising the legal incongruence concerning the minimum age of marriage (Thailand);
110.89 Develop and implement a comprehensive national action plan to prevent and eliminate child, early and forced marriages (Netherlands);
110.90 Continue to take concrete steps to eliminate child, early and forced marriage, such as Malawi’s recent passing of the law raising the age of marriage to 18 years (Canada);
110.91 Take effective measures to reduce child marriage (China);
110.95 Continue its actions to ensure effective respect of the rights of the child and to fight, in particular, against early marriages by adopting rapidly and implementing the marriage bill (France);
110.96 Continue working on the implementation of a national plan to combat violence against children and youth (Nicaragua);
110.97 Continue efforts in combating sexual violence against children regardless of the sex of the child starting with the review of related legislation to ensure prosecution of perpetrators and adequate rehabilitation and compensation for the victims (Thailand);
110.98 Continue implementing the national action plan to guide the progressive elimination of child labour (Cuba);
110.123 Spare no efforts and resources to provide girls and adolescents of reproductive health and social services to address the problem of teenage pregnancies (Honduras);
110.127 Continue efforts in the provision of free and compulsory education (South Africa);
110.128 Put in place measures to improve the infrastructure of educational institutions as well as increase the access of children to education (Trinidad and Tobago);
110.129 Pursue efforts to promote school attendance of girls and women’s rights (Congo);
110.130 Promote the introduction of human rights education in the educational system and in training programs (Senegal);
111. The following enjoy the support of Malawi, which Malawi considers to be already implemented:
111.1 Accelerate the review and adoption of the new law on marriage in order to eradicate early marriages of young girls (Democratic Republic of the Congo);
111.3 Enact the Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill with a view to ending child, early and forced marriage and other harmful practices, and raise the minimum age of marriage to 18 years (Sierra Leone);
111.7 Establish a definition of the child in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as incorporate the principle of the best interests of the child in the Constitution (Timor-Leste);
111.13 Further promote human rights education and make primary education free and compulsory (Rwanda).
112. The following recommendations will be examined by Malawi which will provide responses in due time, but no later than the thirtieth session of the Human Rights Council in September 2015:
112.6 Harmonise laws on abortion with maternal health and child marriage (Congo).