ANGOLA: Child Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the first Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.

Angola - 7th Session - 2010
12th February, 2.30pm to 5.30pm

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National Report
Compilation of UN information
Summary of Stakeholder compilation
Final Report
Accepted and rejected recommendations

National Report

13. Under article 1 of Act No. 10/85 of 19 October, a citizen’s name is composed of a given name and family names. There is a procedure for birth registration and issuing of personal record books, which are needed to acquire identity cards and which help protect citizens’ identity. At one point, hundreds of thousands of children were deprived of this right and the Government launched two campaigns for the free registration of births covering 658,620 people in 1998 and 2.2 million in 2001. In order to monitor mortality and illness rates, the registration of deaths is free.

14. Decree 31/07 of 14 May exempts children up to the age of 5 years from fee payments and issues identity cards to children from 8 to 11 years. It has enabled registration services to operate in hospitals, maternity clinics, maternal and child health centres and other locations where children are born, as well as municipal and district offices. The system is being extended to communities, so that all children might enjoy this right.

15. A child whose father or mother has Angolan nationality, whether born in Angola or abroad, automatically acquires Angolan nationality. This can also be acquired by children who are underage or lack legal capacity with a father or mother who acquires Angolan nationality. Such children are then free to choose another nationality on attaining legal age. Children with no other nationality who are born in Angola, along with those born in Angola of unknown parents, or whose parents are of unknown nationality or stateless, are also entitled to Angolan nationality. There will be further developments for such cases when the new Nationality Act (No. 1/05 of 1 July), already drafted but awaiting approval by the National Assembly, is passed.

28. The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (“The Beijing Rules”), adopted by resolution No. 40/33 of 29 November 1985, state in article 14.1 the need for a competent authority to deal with juvenile offenders, a recommendation reiterated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Act No. 18/88 of 31 December stipulates in article 27 that provincial courts must include specialized chambers to be established according to need. That law had led to the disappearance of the juvenile court system. The enforcement of sentences has been provided for under article 33.3 of Act No. 18/88, which establishes that a special law should deal with juvenile criminal proceedings, under the generic competence of provincial court presidents.

29. Act No. 9/96 of 19 April was adopted in 1996 and establishes the Juvenile Chamber, a specialized judicial body which is part of the provincial courts and referred to as Juvenile Justice (“Justice des Mineurs”), in order to soften the penal connotation conjured up by the term “court”. It implements social protection measures for minors of all ages and criminal prevention measures for those aged from 12 to 16. The five-member Commission for the Protection of Minors, a permanent, independent, non-judicial body, works with Juvenile Justice to deal with the minors under its jurisdiction and implement its decisions.

30. The system does not yet work as well as could be wished, as it has not yet been extended to all provinces beyond Luanda, where it has been in place since 2006. This is partly due to the lack of facilities and of law officers and the absence of internment and semi-internment centres.

53. Articles 20, 22, 23, 25, 30 and 46 of the Constitution Act guarantee respect for and the protection of the person and human dignity, outlaw torture and other inhuman treatment, allow freedom of movement, give absolute priority to the protection of children and provide for the right to work. The Criminal Code in force since 1886 does not contemplate the crime of trafficking in persons, but this is being rectified in amendments to the Code, under which it will become a criminal offence.

54. The Government is taking preventive measures to monitor the movement of persons, especially children, by putting in place appropriate rules and administrative procedures. It is working to raise awareness through training and information programmes for law enforcement officers, creating child protection networks and setting up checkpoints along all external and internal borders, where the identity of unaccompanied minors without travel documents is checked and, in the case of accompanied children, proof of the link between the adult and child, as well as parental permission to travel, have to be shown. It has also created the cross-sectoral Committee on Trafficking in Persons, a national strategic action plan and a national observatory.

55. Measures have been strengthened against all forms of violence linked to trafficking in women and children, who are the most vulnerable to this type of crime, especially in the fight against, inter alia, commercial sexual exploitation and prostitution, slavery, forced labour and the excision of organs.

56. The issues of sexual exploitation and child prostitution are widely debated in round- table discussions, workshops and other forums, in the context of a review of the situation in the country carried out in late 2008. That review had the goal of devising a national strategy to prevent or reduce violence against children, taking in aspects of the National Action and Intervention Plan against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Decision No. 24/99). The strategy aims to improve the data collection system, adopt laws to end impunity for rape and establish specific programmes to counter a worsening situation.

58. The Constitution Act gives absolute priority to children, considering them society’s most vulnerable group. To put this legal premise into action, the Government is promoting their harmonious development and, in 2007, undertook 11 commitments in partnership with United Nations agencies and other social partners. With a view to maintaining a permanent social dialogue and monitoring policies covered by these commitments, it created the National Council for Children (CNA), which in June 2009 organized and ran the Fourth Children’s Forum, to study the results of policies in the course of thematic round-table discussions: Children up to 5 years old. Children in this age group have benefited greatly from significant progress in the areas of life expectancy, food security, birth registrations and early childhood education, all of which are the result of the progressive increase in spending on health, education and other social policies; Children aged 6 to 18. This round table was dominated by issues related to primary education, which has shown considerable growth in gross enrolment rates, with 118.1 per cent growth in 2004, 118.2 per cent in 2005, 122.1 per cent in 2006 and 127.1 per cent in 2007; All children. This covered issues such as HIV/AIDS prevention and reducing its impact on families and children, the prevention or reduction of violence against children, family responsibilities, the durability of progress made, children and communication, children in the general State budget and the Angolan child indicator system.

108. The Basic Education Act No. 13/01 of 31 December establishes not only the integrity and secular, democratic nature of the education system, but also the principle that education should be free of charge and compulsory. Those principles are affected by several negative factors, such as the tradition that prevents girls from attending school or from pursuing their studies beyond the fourth year. Further factors are the great distances between schools and children’s homes and the high rate of teenage pregnancies. To address this, we are running awareness campaigns among parents and educators, as well as in the wider community, on the importance of and need for schooling for all children, without discrimination. This has contributed to the progressive elimination of adverse cultural traditions.

109. The difficulties encountered in the country’s most disadvantaged areas are cause for concern and ethnic minority communities are a case in point. Special community integration programmes have been implemented for groups such as the Khoi-San people during the transhumance season, in order to provide education access for the children of nomad populations in Namibe, Huíla and Cunene provinces.

110. The Government has implemented the three-phase National Education Reconstruction Plan, aimed at restoring, consolidating and expanding the system by achieving a net primary school enrolment rate of 67 per cent in 2005 and cutting illiteracy, especially among women, by 59 per cent by 2015. The National Learning Evaluation Programme is showing progress in the subjects of Portuguese, mathematics and environmental studies.

111. The net primary school (first to sixth years) enrolment rate is 56 per cent. More than 30 per cent of people aged 15 and above, half of them women, are illiterate. Since 2009, a literacy programme has been in place with 6,698 instructors, of whom 109 are supervisors.

112. At the same time, a literacy and remedial study programme aims to accelerate learning through self-teaching and the certification of skills acquired in various formal and informal learning environments. This has led to around 60 per cent of pupils learning to read and write in just three months.

113. A range of civil society organizations and multilateral bodies, among them the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the European Union and various NGOs, have made a valuable contribution to education and we encourage other organizations to come forward with literacy projects.

114. The 3,182 teachers who work in special education receive continual training. Nevertheless, only half those in need of such education are covered. In 2007, 16,393 pupils were enrolled, of whom 7,332 were female. The most common disabilities are deafness (8,110 pupils), mental disorders (5,022) and sight impairment (3,261). Projects being implemented include: the standardization of sign language, the setting up of a national centre to diagnose and monitor pupils with special education needs; the adaptation of curricula; the publication of a manual on deafness and the digital dictionary (versions 1 and 2).

115. The school snack programme operates across the country. Between 2005 and 2008, more than 944,721 primary schoolchildren benefited from this programme, which aims to prevent dropout and improve learning capacity.

116. Some national languages have been introduced into the education system with the object of preventing linguistic exclusion in schools and preserving cultural identity. This project, at the experimental stage, concerns 12,000 pupils in 240 classes.

UN Compilation

8. In 2004, the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) expressed concern at discrimination faced by children with disabilities, girls, and children belonging to the San communities.27 It recommended that Angola take legislative measures explicitly to prohibit all forms of discrimination; and undertake actions, including awareness-raising and educational campaigns, to reduce and prevent discrimination in practice, particularly against girls.28

11. CRC in 2004,33 the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief in 200734 and CESCR in 200835 expressed deep concern at the phenomenon of children accused of witchcraft and the very negative consequences of such accusations, including cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and even murder. UNCT in 2009 expressed similar concern.36 CRC37 and CESCR38 urged Angola to take immediate action to eliminate the mistreatment of these children, including by prosecuting the perpetrators and intensifying education campaigns involving local leaders.

12. CRC was concerned at the common use of corporal punishment in families and in schools and other institutions for children.39 CRC recommended that Angola take effective measures to enforce the ban on corporal punishment in schools and other institutions; prohibit corporal punishment by parents and other caregivers; and undertake campaigns to educate families, teachers, and other professionals working with, and for, children on alternative ways of disciplining them.40

13. CRC was also concerned at the growing number of cases of abuse and violence against children, including sexual abuse in their homes, in schools and in other institutions.41 It recommended that Angola, inter alia, strengthen efforts to address the problem of child abuse, including by ensuring the establishment of child-sensitive mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints regarding ill-treatment and abuse; the promotion of positive and non- violent forms of discipline; the provision of counselling, protection and assistance with recovery and reintegration to all victims of violence; and the effective implementation of the national plan of action to combat sexual abuse of minors.42

17. CRC expressed concern about the extent of the problem of sexual exploitation of and trafficking in children and noted that internally displaced and street children are particularly vulnerable to such abuse.48 CRC recommended that Angola further strengthen its efforts to identify, prevent and combat trafficking in children for sexual and other exploitative purposes, including by finalizing the national plan of action in this area and providing sufficient human and financial resources for its implementation. It also encouraged Angola to define trafficking as a specific criminal offence under the Penal Code.49 In its report to the ILO Committee of Experts in 2008, the Government stated that it was not aware of any trade or trafficking in persons. However, the ILO Committee requested the Government to provide detailed information on the measures taken to combat trafficking in persons in terms of both prevention and suppression.50

22. CRC in 2004,60 CESCR in 200861 and UNCT in 200962 expressed concern at the high number of unregistered children in Angola. CRC63 and CESCR64 recommended that all necessary measures be undertaken to ensure that all children are registered at birth, including by providing such registration free of charge. CESCR also recommended that the coverage of civil status registration be extended to all other persons not yet registered.65

23. CRC in 200466 and UNCT in 200967 noted with concern the customary practice of early or child marriage. CRC recommended that Angola ensure the effective enforcement of the minimum age for marriage stipulated in the Family Code (18 years) and that such measures be accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns to prevent early marriages.68

41. In 2009, UNCT noted that as a result of increased Government funding, primary school enrolment had increased in recent years. However, drop-out and repetition rates remain high, and a large number of children did not have access to a free quality primary education.94 Similar comments were made by CRC in 2004,95 CEDAW in 2004,96 CESCR in 200897 and the ILO Committee of Experts in 2009.98 The ILO Committee requested the Government, inter alia, to improve the quality of the education system, and to provide information on measures adopted in order to increase the school attendance rate at both primary and secondary levels, and decrease the school drop-out rate, so as to prevent children under 14 years of age from engaging in work, as well as on the results achieved.99

50. In 2004, CRC recommended that Angola seek technical assistance from ILO/IPEC in regard to economic exploitation of children;112 and from OHCHR and the United Nations Children’s Fund concerning the administration of juvenile justice.113 In 2008, CESCR urged Angola to seek bilateral and international cooperation in regard to landmines and anti-personnel mines.114

Stakeholder Compilation

14. CPTI indicated that during the war against UNITA, both sides made very extensive use of child soldiers of both sexes. Some of those recruited in rusgas were as young as 14; even younger children are known to have been sent back by military commanders in the field. In 1996, the minimum age for voluntary recruitment was set at 18, but two features create considerable risks that juvenile recruitment may still, at least occasionally, take place in practice: the continued reliance on rusgas for recruitment, and the very low rate of birth registration – estimated at 5%, which means that many of those seized in rusgas have no means of proving their age.20

15. The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GIEACPC) reported that corporal punishment in the home is lawful. The Family Code provides that parental authority includes the obligation to protect children‟s physical and moral integrity, but this and other legal provisions against violence and abuse in law are not interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment in childrearing. It added that there is no explicit prohibition of corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions or in alternative care settings.21

47. JS1 reported that the school attendance and literacy rates in Angola are increasing, but the efforts are not yet sufficient and education is not yet a high priority. 7.14% of the State Annual Budget was allocated to education in 2004, 3.82% in 2005, 5.61% in 2006, and it is now about 5%. Although the education system provides for primary education free of charge, this is not realized because the lack of classrooms, lack of appropriate conditions in schools and corruption predicate that the majority of students pay monthly fees, as well as fees for tests. It recommended the establishment of mechanisms to monitor the fees charged by the schools and the provision of support to the most underprivileged children and adults to ensure their access to education.71

48. JS1 reported that 0,01%(2004), 0,03%(2005), 0,28%(2006) and 1,15% (2007) of the general budget for education was allocated to adult literacy; which is insufficient to curb the continuing high adult illiteracy rates.72

49. JS1 said the Coordinating Commission for the Integration of Human Rights in the Education Subsystems has not yet presented a national human rights education plan.73 It suggested incorporating a human rights subject in the academic syllabus of each school grade, and establishing specializations on human rights in universities.74

Final Report

B. Interactive dialogue and responses by the State under review
19. Kyrgyzstan welcomed Angola’s efforts to combat all forms of violence linked to the trafficking in women and children, and expressed appreciation for Angola’s efforts to create a national strategy for the promotion of gender equality. Kyrgyzstan stated that considerable work remained to be done to promote and protect human rights in Angola, but acknowledged that more time was required for the strengthening of its institutions. It made recommendations.

23. Brazil recognized the positive trend in the ongoing progress of rapid economic growth. It asked Angola about the principal steps taken and the challenges identified with regard to economic, social and cultural rights, poverty, the right to housing and land use; the concrete steps taken to guarantee the rights of children and women, with attention to domestic violence, discrimination and HIV/AIDS; and the principal urgent needs identified with regard to cooperation focused on human rights. Brazil made recommendations.

24. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea took note of the strategies for ensuring compulsory primary education for all children, eradicating illiteracy, enhancing health care services and further improving the livelihoods of the population in urban and rural areas. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea expressed appreciation for the Government’s policies aimed at accelerating national reconstruction and economic revitalization as part of its implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea made recommendations.

25. Djibouti inquired about the constraints faced by Angola in implementing its policy and diversifying its economy, particularly in the areas of agriculture, fishing and industry. It noted with satisfaction the absolute priority accorded in the constitutional law to children and the 11 commitments undertaken in 2007 in partnership with United Nations agencies and other partners. It inquired about the resources made available to the inter-ministerial commission on freedom of religion and belief, which had proposed, inter alia, measures to counter accusations against children practicing witchcraft. Djibouti made recommendations.

28. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela noted the difficulties created by the lengthy armed conflict and other factors that continued to affect the right to education. It referred to the awareness campaigns to persuade parents to enrol both boys and girls in school, without any form of discrimination, in order to gradually reduce the drop-out rate. Venezuela referred to the National Reconstruction Plan for the educational system, which sought to increase enrolment rates, and the Literacy Campaign, aimed at halving illiteracy by 2015. Venezuela made one recommendation.

33. Belarus stated that Angola had accorded considerable attention to protecting the social and economic rights of its citizens, by ensuring the growth of the gross domestic product and by taking measures to protect the vulnerable parts of the population, to reduce unemployment, to address gender equality and to protect the rights of children. Belarus noted that Angola was determined to eliminate illiteracy, to ensure that access to education was as broad as possible, and that priority was placed on the development of health services and the construction of hospitals. Angola had also established a ministerial committee to combat trafficking. Belarus made recommendations.

34. France asked for information about the level of the implementation of the 2006 law on the press and, more generally, about planned measures to ensure transparency in the process of allotting radio and television frequencies. It also inquired about planned measures in the field of arbitrary arrest and detention, to ensure effective remedy, access to judicial aid and fair trial. France requested information about the measures taken to end violence against “witch children”, especially thorough awareness-raising programmes and the pursuit of perpetrators. France made recommendations.

37. Egypt wished to be apprised of further information about the components of the Water for All project and the progress achieved in its implementation. Noting that the school enrolment rate for girls was lower than that for boys, Egypt asked the Angolan delegation to elaborate further about the measures taken to address that gap, given that the Government seeks to achieve free and compulsory education. Egypt made recommendations.

45. Il y a également eu un progrès économique considérable qui a permis de garantir un certain nombre de droits sociaux, notamment dans les domaines de l’éducation et de la santé. Concernant les questions relatives aux droits de l’enfant, aux droits de la femme, à la violence domestique, au HIV/SIDA, à l’habitat et à l’usage de la terre qui ont été soulevées par le Brésil, l’Angola a renvoyé aux éléments contenus à la page 10 de son rapport.

51. Concernant les droits de l’enfant, la loi protège les enfants. La question des enfants dits «sorciers» est très complexe dans la mesure où il s’agit d’accusations portées par des communautés sur des enfants appartenant à leur propre communauté. Le gouvernement a répondu par la mise en place d’une commission nationale qui intègre plusieurs secteurs, y compris les populations concernées elles-mêmes.

57. The United States of America commended Angola’s cooperation with the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in 2008, but remained concerned that suspects had been subjected to torture while in detention, including incommunicado detention. The United States noted that defamation continued to be a criminal offence, that journalists continued to be harassed and that, in most areas, citizens could gain access only to Government- controlled or pro-Government media organs. It remained concerned about the trafficking in women and children and stated that domestic initiatives to address that problem had so far proved ineffective. The United States also remained concerned about reports indicating that Congolese migrants being deported from Angola were subject to abuse, including rape, by its military and police forces. It made recommendations.

58. Portugal noted with appreciation the Angolan National Strategy to Prevent and Reduce Violence against Children and wished to receive further information about it. It also expressed appreciation for all the Government’s efforts to promote the right to education and welcomed the significant social housing projects. Portugal made recommendations.

59. Mexico welcomed the will of Angolan Government to create a culture of human rights within the country. In view of the situation of vulnerable groups, Mexico asked for further information about the progress made in the reform of the criminal code and about measures taken to eliminate discrimination against minors with disabilities and to prohibit corporal punishment and the trafficking in minors, and measures aimed at the registration of children at birth. It also requested information about measures to promote and protect women’s rights. Mexico made recommendations.

63. Malaysia was encouraged to note that many positive efforts had been taken to ensure respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in the country. However, it noted that certain areas could benefit from greater attention, such as, inter alia, the issue of the trafficking in persons, especially women and girls, sexual exploitation and child prostitution. Malaysia made recommendations.

64. India acknowledged the challenges and constraints of Angola in guaranteeing human rights in the wake of a long civil war. It took positive note of the significant progress towards the consolidation of peace made in the brief period of relative stability over the past few years, namely, the holding of multiparty general elections in 2008 and the promulgation of a new Constitution. It noted the increased public investment in the social sector and the considerable impact that it had had in the crucial areas of health care and primary school enrolment; as well as the progress that had been made with regard to gender equality. India encouraged Angola to continue to strengthen its judicial administration and penal systems and to expand the participation of civil society in all policy processes. It also urged Angola to establish a national human rights institution and requested information about the new mining code and about any additional measures to curb the trafficking in children.

66. Australia welcomed the fact that peace had been maintained since 2002, but was saddened by the recent attack on the Togolese football team in the Cabinda enclave and remained concerned by ongoing reports of the arbitrary arrest, detention, intimidation and harassment of human rights defenders. It encouraged Angola to address child trafficking and labour and accusations of child witchcraft. It expressed concern about slum clearance; forced eviction and insufficient protection for internally displaced persons. It referred to the issues of maternal mortality, gender-based violence, HIV/AIDS infection and lack of humanitarian access to prisoners. Australia made recommendations.

70. Slovenia commended Angola for the increase in primary school enrolment in recent years. Nonetheless, Slovenia was concerned about the reported situation faced by women, especially widespread gender-based violence, commercial sexual exploitation and high maternal mortality rates. It was also concerned at the lack of protection for children from violence, abuse and exploitation. Slovenia asked Angola whether it would revise the constitutional law on gender equality and women’s rights, and when it would adopt the National Action Plan to combat the trafficking in children. Slovenia made recommendations.

71. The Democratic Republic of the Congo welcomed the establishment of provincial committees, a “Promoter of Justice”, a national council for the family and a national council for children as mechanisms for protecting and promoting human rights. It praised the activities aimed at reorganizing the civil registry to facilitate the registration of births and of adults following the war. As Angola was a post-conflict country, the Democratic Republic of the Congo requested clarifications as to the difficulties encountered in reintegrating its demobilized soldiers and how the Government had managed to resolve them. The Democratic Republic of the Congo made one recommendation.

72. Sri Lanka noted the General Labour Act, which guaranteed to women equal treatment and non-discrimination. It stated that the efforts to resettle displaced persons and demobilized soldiers, as well as the clearance of anti-personnel mines, were commendable. Sri Lanka also praised the efforts taken to guarantee compulsory primary school education. It made recommendations.

84. Italy welcomed the increase in primary school enrolment in Angola, but noted that girls’ access to school was still significantly hampered by social prejudice. It referred to reported cases involving torture, ill treatment, extrajudicial execution and the excessive use of force by police. Italy expressed concern about widespread gender-based violence. It made recommendations.

Accepted and Rejected Recommendations

The following recommendations were accepted by Angola:

87. The following recommendations will be examined by Angola, which will provide responses in due course, but no later than the fourteenth session of the Human Rights Council, to be held in June 2010. The responses made by Angola to those recommendations will be included in the outcome report adopted by the Council at its fourteenth session.

2. To ratify the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol thereto to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Djibouti);

46. To take legislative measures to explicitly prohibit all forms of discrimination, in particular against children with disabilities, girls and children belonging to the San communities, and to effectively protect children accused of witchcraft (Czech Republic);

50. To invite international mechanisms, in particular those for the strengthening of gender equality, women’s rights, children’s rights and the elimination of all forms of discrimination (Mexico);

53. To strengthen its policy aimed at the full guarantee of children’s rights, with attention to the implementation of the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children, in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 11/7 and General Assembly resolution 64/142 (Brazil);

59. To strengthen and intensify its actions to prevent and by reduce violence against children (Portugal);

66. To expeditiously take the actions necessary to combat the negative phenomenon of violence against children, and to provide efficient rehabilitation and reintegration schemes for victims (Slovakia);

67. To take steps to ensure that all child labour is ended (Ireland);

68. To strengthen efforts to enact the existing legislation on child labour (Italy);

69. To take all social, educational and legal measures necessary to address the phenomenon of children accused of witchcraft (Italy);

70. To strengthen its efforts to fulfil its obligations under CRC (Australia);

78. To enact appropriate legislation against the sale and trafficking of children (Pakistan);

79. To accelerate the implementation of training and information programmes for law enforcement officers with a view to combating and suppressing the trafficking in women and girls, and to establish child protection networks to that end (Malaysia);

81. To take appropriate action to establish a juvenile justice system (Slovenia);

97. To adopt further effective measures and policies aimed at increasing the number of registered births (Japan);

114. To allocate additional resources to improving the country’s health infrastructures, while ensuring that ongoing health reforms take into account the rights of women and children (Canada);

124. To consider as a priority the most vulnerable groups in its population, in particular women and children (Belarus);

147. To place priority on the vital area of education, especially the education of girls in rural areas (Algeria);

148. To continue to strengthen its policies aimed at increasing the enrolment rate in primary and secondary education, and to implement the measures necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in terms of reducing illiteracy rates (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela);

149. To continue to reinforce policies aimed at improving enrolment rates at primary and secondary schools (Turkey);

150. To devise plans and strategies for guaranteeing the right to education and providing girls with equal access to education (Egypt);

152. To enforce or institute mechanisms for ensuring that the first grade of school is free for all children (Ireland);

153. To take further measures to improve the quality of the basic education system by increasing the number and the training of teachers, to increase the school attendance rate at the secondary level, to decrease drop-out rates, to combat child labour and to prevent discrimination against young girls (Portugal);

154. To step up efforts to promote and protect the right to education and children’s rights, including by improving literacy rates and enrolment rates in primary and secondary education (Philippines);

155. To take further measures aimed at consolidating its achievements with regard to expanding education to disadvantaged areas, by according special attention to the rights of the girl child, especially in nomadic communities (Ethiopia);

157. To actively promote access to education for young girls (Italy);

Angola did not reject any recommendations

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