NIGER: Children's rights references in the Universal Periodic Review

Summary: A compilation of extracts featuring child-rights issues from the reports submitted to the first Universal Periodic Review. There are extracts from the 'National Report', the 'Compilation of UN Information' and the 'Summary of Stakeholder's Information'. Also included is the final report and the list of accepted and rejected recommendations.


Niger - 10th Session - 2011
1st February, 9am to 12pm

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National Report

Compilation of UN information
Stakeholder information
Accepted and rejected recommendations

National Report

11. Niger has ratified, inter alia, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; the statutes of the Court of Justice of the Economic Community of West African States and of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights; and the African Union Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Corruption. It also adheres to human rights commitments undertaken in the framework of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the International Organization of la Francophonie, in particular the Bamako Declaration on the practices of democracy, rights and freedoms.

12. Since its independence, Niger has developed a legal framework that is adapted to its situation and meets the requirements of human rights protection. Relevant legislation includes: the Criminal Code, revised in 2003, and the Code of Criminal Procedure which take into account areas of concern addressed by the international conventions ratified by Niger (female genital mutilation, sexual harassment, slavery, terrorism, the limitation and supervision of pretrial detention ...); and the Nationality Code, which was amended in 1999 to allow women to transmit their nationality to their children on an equal footing with men.

15. The various Constitutions adopted by Niger recognize the principles contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in particular the sanctity of the human person. The Criminal Code penalizes any attempt on life. Therefore, abortion, infanticide, parricide and the murder and abandonment of children constitute offences, for which their perpetrators, co-perpetrators and accomplices are punished in accordance with the law.

27. With respect to young people and children, the establishment of a youth parliament in 2002 has helped consolidate this right. However, poverty and entrenched attitudes are obstacles to such participation.

34. Access to justice is free and without charge. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been directly incorporated into the domestic legal system and can be invoked before the courts in Niger, just as the Convention on the Rights of the Child is regularly invoked with respect to provisions concerning the best interests of the child, particularly in cases involving adoption and custody.

40. The promotion and protection of economic, social and cultural rights are a major concern for the authorities in Niger.

41. Consequently, everyone has the right to education without distinction as to age, sex, social, racial, ethnic or religious origin or disability. Education is free of charge in Niger. Several measures have been taken to promote education: recognition of the right to education for children with disabilities (Ordinance, 1993); Act No. 98-12 of 1 June 1998 setting out the aims of Niger's education system and making primary education compulsory; establishment of the diploma in vocational studies and the certificate of vocational competence; the establishment of institutes of technology in three regions in 2004 and their upgrading to university status in 2010; implementation of a 10-year educational development programme aimed at achieving Millennium Development Goal 2; establishment of a directorate for the promotion of girls' school enrolment in order to promote gender equality in Niger's education system and reduce disparities between boys and girls.

42. Access to education has improved at all levels. The gross preschool enrolment ratio increased from 1.6 per cent in 2006–2007 to 2 per cent in 2007–2008 and to 2.5 per cent in 2008–2009. The gross primary enrolment ratio increased from 57.1 per cent to 74.1 per cent between 2007 and 2010. The rate for girls showed a greater increase than that for boys, rising by 19.4 per cent, compared with 14.2 per cent for boys.

43. In 2008–2009, 18.4 per cent of pupils (i.e. 40,490 children) enrolled in basic cycle 2 attended private schools. The number of pupils in the private sector rose by 17.7 per cent compared to 2007–2008. In secondary education, 10,836 pupils out of a total enrolment of 27,643 (approximately 39.2 per cent) attended private schools in 2008–2009. The number of pupils in private schools rose by almost 17.5 per cent (10,836 pupils enrolled in 2008– 2009 as compared to 9,221 in 2007–2008).

44. The proportion of women able to read and write is approximately 12 per cent, compared to 28 per cent for men. Moreover, one third of women drop out during the programme and only half successfully complete the course.

45. Arabic is taught as part of the Franco-Arabic education system. In 2008, the number of pupils enrolled in this system accounted for 10 per cent of all children in primary education, with a growth rate of 50 per cent in public madrasas and 20 per cent in private madrasas during the period 2005–2006. Koranic schools provide teaching in the Koran and the Islamic faith for children and adults of both sexes. In recent years, this type of education has grown, following the introduction of literacy courses and vocational training for talibes.

46. Regarding technical education, there were 13,379 students in technical and vocational training establishments in 2007–2008, i.e. 8 per cent of all students in secondary education. Girls accounted for 54 per cent of students and boys for 46 per cent. In 2006– 2007, the target population for this type of education was estimated at 294,546 pupils. As for higher education, the number of students enrolled in the country's universities in 2008– 2009 was as follows: Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey, 9,854 students; the Islamic University of Say, 1,091 students, including 197 girls, and 89 in the Institutes of Technology.

47. In nomadic areas, schools rely on their canteens to survive. Keeping canteens open has contributed significantly to increased pupil numbers.

48. The education of children with disabilities is encouraged, but educational provision for these children is very limited. There are three schools for children with hearing disabilities (Niamey, Maradi and Zinder) and one for blind children in Niamey. There are five integrated classes for blind children in regular public schools (Konni, Maradi, Zinder, Agadez and Tahoua).

49. While the State has done a great deal in the area of education, its effectiveness is limited by socio-economic constraints, and a number of challenges remain: inadequate financial resources and infrastructure, low level of teachers' qualifications, entrenched social and cultural attitudes, the mismatch between literacy programmes and the population's concerns and needs, and the low level of resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, in higher education.

50. Niger has undertaken several measures in the area of culture, including the establishment of public reading centres, support for the creation, production and dissemination of artistic and cultural activities, the establishment of regional museums and centres for developing the professional skills of cultural actors, and the establishment of a joking kinship week

68. In 2009, the maternal mortality rate (6.48 per thousand) and the child and infant mortality rate (198 per thousand) were still very high, making it difficult to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

70. To ensure access to health care for vulnerable groups, the Government has made the following services free of charge: Caesarean sections (2005), under-five childcare, antenatal care, family planning and the treatment of cancer that affects women (2006). As a result, the number of children under 5 receiving treatment rose from 4,422,864 in 2008 to 5,184,321 in 2009; the number of Caesarean sections rose from 5,698 in 2008 to 8,799 in 2009.

76. The year 2010 was marked by a food crisis. According to the national survey on household vulnerability conducted in April 2010, more than 7 million people are affected by food insecurity. In June 2009, a national nutrition and survival survey revealed a global acute malnutrition rate of 12.3 per cent. In 2008, the acute malnutrition rate among children aged 6 to 59 months was 10.7 per cent. Among these children, 0.8 per cent suffer from the most severe form of acute malnutrition. In the same year, the proportion of children aged 6 to 59 months with retarded growth was 39.3 per cent, 14.2 per cent of whom exhibited a severe form.

93. Niger's various Constitutions have provided for the promotion and protection of children's rights. With respect to the registration of children at birth, the Civil Status Act adopted in December 2007 requires parents or any other person present at the birth to register the child within a period ranging from 10 to 30 days under penalty of fines. However, it is important to note the difficulties encountered in meeting this objective, such as a lack of awareness of the practical value of civil status certificates.

94. The Civil Code sets out the adoption procedures for children who have been abandoned or separated from their parents. In cases of divorce, custody of the child is granted to one parent or the other in the best interests of the child. The Civil Code regulates the administration of the property of orphans.

95. The Criminal Code penalizes begging and increases the penalty for those who use children for that purpose. It criminalizes and penalizes the rape of a child under 13 years of age, sexual harassment, and female genital mutilation. The Code increases the penalties in the case of assault against a child under 13 years of age. The Labour Code sets the minimum age for employment at 14 years and regulates the types of work permitted.

96. Ordinance No. 99-11 on juvenile courts establishes all the protection measures provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Children in conflict with the law are tried by juvenile courts and cannot be sentenced to the death penalty or life imprisonment. Children under 13 years of age are not criminally responsible and are subject to judicial protection measures. Ordinance No. 99-42 increases the penalties for persons who involve children in the importation, possession, transport or exportation of drugs. Ordinance No. 99-68 provides for the establishment of a national fund to support children with disabilities.

97. The General Principles Act on the education system provides for special education for children with disabilities and protects them against discrimination. Other programmes contribute to the realization of children's rights, including the National Plan of Action on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children, and the Juvenile Justice Project.

98. In 2006, the percentage of under-fives whose birth had been registered was 32 per cent (25 per cent in rural areas and 75 per cent in urban areas).

99. Child labour is a matter of concern for the authorities in Niger. The proportion of children aged 5 to 14 years who work fell from 70 per cent in 2000 to 47 per cent in 2006, thanks to the efforts of the State, NGOs and associations involved in the fight against child labour, with ILO support through its International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). There is a significant disparity between rural areas (59 per cent of child workers) and urban areas (37 per cent). Many children engage in hazardous work, for example those aged 5 to 17 years who work at the gold washing sites in Komabangou and M'banga.

100. In 2006 the regional directorates of the Ministry for the Advancement of Women and Protection of Children estimated the number of street children to be 11,042. According to the Demographic and Health Survey and the multiple indicator cluster survey, in 2006, 31 per cent of children were separated from at least one of their biological parents as compared to 17.4 per cent in 2000. Wards of the State are entrusted to the Care Centre for Children with Family Difficulties in Niamey. In 2008, the Centre admitted 38 children as against 17 in 2000. With respect to children in conflict with the law, in 2008 the number of minors detained in the country's 37 prisons stood at 207 (181 boys and 26 girls).

101. Early and forced marriages are a reality in Niger. According to the 2006 Demographic and Health Survey and the multiple indicator cluster survey, half of the women in the age group 25–49 had been married by the age of 15.5 years. The median age at first marriage had increased slightly from 1998, when it was 15.1 years. In 2006, the national prevalence rate of female genital mutilation/excision was 2.2 per cent, i.e. half the 1998 figure of 5.6 per cent.

107. The Civil Code states that men under the age of 18 years and women under the age of 15 years may not enter into marriage. Customary law does not set a legal marriageable age. Polygamous marriage is governed by customary law and religion. Polygamous unions are widespread in both rural and urban areas. There has been little change in the frequency of polygamy: 38 per cent of women and 24 per cent of men were in polygamous unions in 2008, as compared to 36 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively, in 2006.

111. The 2001 general population and housing census found that persons with disabilities represent 0.73 per cent of the total population (44,025 men and 36,010 women). Girls account for 45 per cent of children with disabilities. The most common disabilities are lower limb infirmity (13.37 per cent), deafness (10.61 per cent), blindness (11.47 per cent) and mental deficiency (10.23 per cent). A significant proportion of children (33.44 per cent) have more than one disability.

118. Niger has been tireless in its efforts to implement political, economic and social measures, including:

(g) Establishment of school management committees involving parents in the running of schools;

(h) Introduction of free health services for under-five child care, Caesarean sections, antenatal care (including the distribution of impregnated mosquito nets to pregnant women and nursing mothers) and the detection and treatment of cancer that affects women and family planning;

UN Compilation

1. In 2007, the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) drew the attention of Niger to the fact that reservations to articles 2 and 16 were contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,9 and urged it to expedite its efforts towards the withdrawal of its reservations.10 In 2009, the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) also urged Niger to consider withdrawing its reservations to CEDAW.11

4. In June 2010, UNICEF stated that new provisions had been introduced into the Niger Penal Code of 2003, abolishing female genital mutilation (FGM), slavery and sexual harassment, and giving a broader definition of rape.15

11. In 2009, CRC was concerned that the minimum age for voluntary or compulsory recruitment was not specified by law and that children as young as 13 years old could enrol in the military school of Niamey and be taught basic handling of firearms.30 It recommended that Niger adopt legislation setting the minimum age of 18 for recruitment into military forces and raise the legal age to enter military schools.31

12. In June 2010, UNICEF noted that violence against women was multiform, and generally admitted to be widespread. In addition to physical, verbal and psychological violence, there was the violence linked to traditional beliefs and tolerated by society, despite its physical, moral and economic consequences for women and their children in terms of repudiation, confinement, forced marriages and discrimination in the right to inheritance.32 In 2007, CEDAW raised similar concerns and recommended that Niger place the highest priority on implementing a comprehensive approach to address all forms of violence against women.33

13. In 2009, CRC noted with concern that FGM remains prevalent among some women.34 It recommended that Niger implement and apply legislative and other measures to prohibit traditional practices that are harmful to children, including FGM and ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice; continue and strengthen awareness-raising and sensitization activities for practitioners, families, traditional or religious leaders and the general public in order to encourage change in traditional attitudes, and concentrate efforts to eradicate FGM in the regions where those practices remained widespread.35

14. In 2008, the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (ILO Committee of Experts) observed that there was an archaic form of slavery found in nomadic communities and that slave status was still transmitted by birth to persons from certain ethnic groups. The Committee of Experts stressed that it was essential that the perpetrators of slavery offences be prosecuted, and if appropriate, sentenced.36 In 2009, CRC urged Niger to take all the necessary measures to eradicate all forms of slavery; to ensure that perpetrators of such practices are systematically prosecuted; and to adopt a national action plan to combat slavery including effective measures to free victims of traditional slavery practices and provide children with rehabilitation, psychological recovery and assistance.37

15. In 2009, CRC was concerned at the increasing number of child victims of sexual exploitation, as well as at the practice known as "Wahaya" whereby wealthy or eminent persons, chiefs and important marabouts buy young girls to serve as their concubines, which seems to be widely socially accepted.38 It recommended that Niger develop and strengthen appropriate legislative measures to address the issues of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation; and take appropriate measures to ensure the prompt prosecution of perpetrators of sexual offences against children.39 In 2007, CEDAW made similar recommendations.40

16. In 2008, the ILO Committee of Experts noted the information obtained by the High- Level Fact-Finding Mission of 10–20 January 2006, according to which Niger was both a country of origin and a country of destination for human trafficking, including trafficking of children. The Committee of Experts expressed its sincere hope that Niger would take the necessary steps to ensure that the draft bill for the prevention, repression and punishment of trafficking would be drawn up and adopted as soon as possible.41 For its part, CRC in 2009 recommended that Niger promptly adopt a law penalizing child trafficking, ensure proper investigation in cases of child trafficking and prosecute and punish the perpetrators, and provide further resources to support sheltering and recovery of all child victims of sale or trafficking.42

17. In 2008, the ILO Committee of Experts noted that child labour in small-scale mining was widespread, principally in the informal economy, where the work was the most hazardous, and expressed its concern at the use of child labour particularly in mines and quarries.43 In 2009, CRC expressed similar concerns and recommended that a national action plan to prevent and combat child labour be adopted and implemented.44

18. In 2009, CRC was concerned that the provisions against violence and abuse in the Constitution and the Criminal Code are not interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment in child-rearing and that there is no explicit prohibition of corporal punishment in schools and alternative care settings.45 It recommended that Niger, inter alia, explicitly prohibit by law corporal punishment and all forms of violence against children in the family, schools and institutions; introduce public education, awareness-raising and social mobilization campaigns on the harmful effects of corporal punishment; ensure recovery and social reintegration of victims of corporal punishment; prioritize elimination of all forms of violence against children by taking all necessary measures to implement recommendations of the United Nations Study on violence against children; ensure accountability and end impunity.46

19. CRC in 200947 and the ILO Committee of Experts in 200848 expressed concern at the situation of the Talibé children, who are forced to beg in the streets. CRC recommended that Niger define preventive and protective measures to reduce the number of street children.49 CRC also requested Niger to supply information on the measures taken by the National Committee for Combating the Phenomenon of Street Children to remove children from the streets and to ensure their rehabilitation and social integration.50

21. In 2009, CRC was concerned that children aged 16 to 18 who committed crimes together with adults were brought before adult courts and might face the death penalty. It reiterated its deep concern that children continue to be detained together with adults.52 It recommended that Niger take immediate steps to halt and abolish by law imposition of the death penalty and life sentences for crimes committed by persons under 18; bring cases involving children to trial as quickly as possible; urgently ensure that in all detention facilities children are no longer detained with adults; and take all necessary measures to ensure that children are held in detention only as a last resort and for as short a time as possible, that children are not ill-treated in detention and that conditions in detention facilities meet international minimum standards.53

23. CRC in 200955 and UNICEF in 201056 noted that the marriageable age for girls is 15, as against 18 for boys. CRC urged Niger to set the minimum age for marriage at 18 for boys and girls.57 It also urged Niger to take immediate measures to prohibit early and forced marriages and organize awareness-raising campaigns in partnership with traditional chiefs on the adverse consequences of early pregnancies.58 In 2007, CEDAW made similar recommendations.59

24. In 2009, CRC was concerned at the decreasing percentage of children registered at birth.60 It urged Niger to strengthen its efforts to ensure that all children, especially Mahamid children, are registered and ensure that institutional registration structures are free and accessible, especially in rural and remote areas.61

25. In 2009, CRC noted with concern that no significant action had been undertaken to decrease the number of informal adoptions,62 and called upon Niger to prevent the practice of informal adoption and set up an effective mechanism to monitor adoptions.63

28. In 2009, CRC was concerned over the limitations placed upon certain civil society organizations and in particular the severe administrative and practical restrictions upon the operation of international non-governmental organizations working in the area of human rights and humanitarian assistance for children.66 It recommended that Niger respect the crucial role played by civil society in furthering the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.67

34. In 2009, CRC expressed concern that while rates of acute and chronic malnutrition and maternal mortality remain at a very high level, the attention paid to those critical issues seems to be inadequate; it was also concerned at the low performance of health services in terms of access, utilization and quality, and at the traditional or religious beliefs which limit children's access to health care.79 It recommended that Niger consider nutrition as a national priority and provide appropriate resources to the implementation of nutrition activities; strengthen its efforts to further reduce infant and child mortality; increase its efforts to further reduce maternal mortality; and pursue its immunization efforts.80

35. In June 2010, UNICEF stated that child mortality remains a major health problem. According to the studies conducted in 2008, 1 in 5 children (19.8 per cent) dies before his/her 5th birthday. The main causes of death, besides malaria, are acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea. The nutritional status of children under the age of five continues to raise serious concerns: two children in five suffer from chronic malnutrition, due to inadequate feeding and protracted illnesses, while one in ten dies from acute malnutrition.81

37. In July 2010, the United Nations country team declared that the health situation in Niger was predominantly characterized by numerous endemic and epidemic communicable diseases (malaria, cholera, meningitis, HIV/AIDS) and the emergence of non- communicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cancers ...) for which the country was not always prepared. The situation was exacerbated by the scant protection available to the population against the risk of illness. A mere 3 per cent of the population were insured against illness. Niger had made available free care for children and women with difficult pregnancies. Unfortunately, free care did not extend to other groups of vulnerable people such as the elderly, the mentally and the physically disabled for whom no other form of assistance was available.83

38. In July 2010, the United Nations country team reported that access to drinking water was still inadequate, as some 50 per cent of Niger's population lacked access to it.84 UNICEF stated that the living conditions of children and women are unconducive to their wellbeing and good health. Most people live in thatched mud houses, and more than half the population lives in very overcrowded conditions. Proper sanitation is very rare. Half of the population still uses untreated water from wells and other high-risk sources, while waste disposal management is rudimentary.85 CEDAW in 200786 and CRC in 200987 expressed similar concerns, CEDAW calling on Niger to, inter alia, ensure that a gender perspective is included in all poverty reduction plans and strategies.88

39. In July 2010, the United Nations country team stated that the gross pre-primary enrolment rate was merely 2.5 per cent of children in the age group, that 1 out of 3 children in the 7 to 12 year age group did not attend school, 9 out of 10 were not enrolled in the first level (secondary school) and less than 2 per cent enrolled in the second level (lycée). The high population growth rate put further pressure on the educational system.89

40. With regard to equity, the limitations were equally powerful: there was little likelihood of girls who lived in rural areas being able to benefit from their right to an education. The disparities became even more pronounced as they progressed from primary education (where girls made up 43 per cent of pupils) to the second level of secondary education (38 per cent of pupils).90

41. The gaps could be accounted for both by the reluctance of parents to enrol their daughters in school because of their expectations for their role in society (early marriage, domestic work), and by the fact that attending school is not an attractive proposition because of the remoteness of schools, the failure of school curricula to match expectations and the risk of violence. Illiteracy is still a major impediment to development. Only 12 per cent of women are able to read and write a simple text, in comparison with 28 per cent of men, a fact which is a further impediment to the enrolment of girls in school.91

42. Teaching is of a very low quality: many children leave primary school without being able to read or write. The decline in quality may be accounted for by the rapid expansion of educational coverage: to give but a few examples, 50 per cent of classrooms are straw huts that need to be rebuilt each year after the harvest and 90 per cent of teachers are on temporary contracts, often with a low level of education themselves, and their poor working conditions mean that they are frequently absent.92

43. CEDAW in 2007,93 CRC in 200994 and UNICEF in 201095 expressed similar concerns. CRC recommended that Niger improve the quality of education and take all measures to ensure that children complete their schooling; address disparities more effectively; ensure adequate funding of the public education system and that compulsory education is free; extend compulsory education beyond 6 years; and increase access to early childhood education.96

50. In 2009, CRC expressed concern at the continued military conflict in the north of the country which is expected to further impoverish the chronically poor and the vulnerable nomadic populations.110

51 In June 2010, UNICEF stated that, as in 2005, Niger was also suffering the effects of a food crisis which aggravates the already precarious nutritional status of its children. The combination of poverty and the food crisis has triggered the displacement of the inhabitants of the affected areas, especially single women with dependent children, to the urban centres. In addition, the natural resources of the country have been depleted over the last 30 years as a result of the combined effects of population growth and climate change. This situation has increased the intensity of the country's recurrent food crises, and could in fact compromise the chances of survival of future generations.111

Stakeholder Information

1. The Association pour la Défense des Enfants du Niger (ADENI) indicates that the Niger has signed and ratified several international and regional legal instruments concerning the rights of the child, but that despite these ratifications, the State does not allocate the necessary resources to ensure the effective implementation of these conventions and of the various recommendations made by the Committee on the Rights of the Child.2

7. RC 1 indicates that despite some advances, women in the Niger continue to suffer from discrimination. Not one of the eight regional governors throughout the country is a woman. Girls' education suffers because of discrimination and girls are forced into early marriages. According to the 2008 report by the Association Nigérienne de Défense des Droits de l'Homme, 14.4 per cent of adolescents aged 10 to 14 are or have already been married.12

14. ADENI refers to the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labour and indicates that there are several causes of child labour in the Niger, the primary causes being widespread poverty, weak economic growth, parents' ignorance of the effects of child labour, poor performance in school, unemployment, and having parents with physical disabilities.31 ONDHLF points out that in violation of legal instruments against the trafficking of persons, children are forced by their religious teachers to beg, while others work as domestics or in quarries or on farms.32 ADENI recommends establishing a system to collect, process and disseminate information and data on child labour, and recommends that the Niger take measures to make families and children less vulnerable by implementing community development programmes that address education, health and the fight against poverty and ignorance.33 ADENI also advocates establishing and implementing institutional arrangements to care for vulnerable children and children who have been abused or exploited.34

15. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment against Children (GIEACPC) noted that corporal punishment is lawful at home. Provisions against violence and abuse in the Constitution, the 1961 Penal Code amended in 2004 and Act No. 62-11 (1962) are not interpreted as prohibiting all corporal punishment in child-rearing. A Family Code and Children's Code are being drafted but no details of their provisions are available. There is no explicit prohibition of corporal punishment in schools. In the penal system, corporal punishment is unlawful as a sentence for crime but it is not prohibited as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions. It is lawful in alternative care settings.35

33. ADENI recommends bringing national legislation into line with and adapting it to international children's rights instruments as well as promoting wider knowledge of domestic and international legal instruments on the rights of the child. ADENI also recommends that the Government allocate the necessary budget to fund activities to help juveniles in conflict with the law and organize alternative education programmes, particularly in vocational training centres, for all girls and boys who are not able to continue or complete their basic education and for children rescued from the worst forms of child labour.74

Accepted and Rejected Recommendations


The following recommendations were accepted:

A - 76.12 Strengthen efforts to fulfil obligations in accordance with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Australia)

A - 76.13 Further improve the normative framework in order to better guarantee women’s and children’s rights (Italy)

A - 76.22 In line with the recommendations from the Committee on the Rights of the Child, take immediate steps to halt and abolish the death penalty and life sentences for crimes committed by persons under 18 (Norway) 

A - 76.26 Continue to strengthen awareness-raising and sensitization activities for practitioners, families, traditional or religious leaders and the general public in order to encourage change in traditional attitudes aiming at effective eradication of female genital mutilation, Wahaya and other harmful practices (Slovenia);

A - 76.27 Address traditional practices that are against human rights, inter alia female genital mutilation, through more concerted efforts, involving local levels (Norway)

A - 76.28 Implement and apply legislative as well as other measures that aim at the eradication of harmful tradition practices such as female genital mutilation (Poland)

A - 76.29 Continue and strengthen awareness-raising activities aimed at eradicating traditional practices that are harmful to children, including female genital mutilation (Italy)

A - 76.30 Follow-up the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s recommendations relating to the practice of female genital mutilation, and organize awareness raising campaigns in public and in schools (Germany) 

A - 76.31 Take all appropriate measures to ensure an effective implementation of the prohibition of female genital mutilation, especially in terms of prevention, sensitization, control and legal sanctions (Belgium)

A - 76.34 Develop and strengthen appropriate legislative measures to address the issues of trafficking, sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and take measures to ensure prompt prosecution of perpetrators of sexual offences against children (Malaysia)

A - 76.35 Reinforce legislative measures to combat sexual exploitation and sexual abuses, in line with what the Committee on the Rights of the Child recommended (Chile) 

A - 76.36 Implement the recommendations made by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, especially eradicate traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, sexual exploitation, corporal punishment in children’s education and forced child begging (Ecuador)

A - 76.51 Strengthen the existing measures to combat child trafficking, forced labour, begging and sexual exploitations of children, including migrant children (Switzerland) 

A - 76.52 Pass and implement legislation aimed specifically at eliminating all forms of child labour (United States of America)

A - 76.53 Adopt and implement a national plan of action to prevent and combat child labour (Poland)

A - 76.70 Continue to adopt measures in order to reduce effectively maternal mortality rate and child and infant mortality rates (China)

A - 76.71 Give priority to the continuation of efforts to promote the right to education (Saudi Arabia)

A - 76.72 Implement an awareness-raising campaign for parents aimed at increasing the school enrolment rate of girls (Canada) 

A - 76.73 Ensure the increase of financial resource allocation to the field of public education with a view to improving the quality of education, build an appropriate infrastructure and ensure that compulsory primary education lasts for six years (Ecuador)

A - 76.74 Further expand its school feeding programme and integrate it with local agricultural production (Brazil)

The following recommendations are pending or no clear decision was taken:

P - 78.32 Control and stop domestic violence levels, especially towards women and children, through the creation of national protection institutions and revise the reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, especially those regarding age of marriage and abolish the practice of domestic violence (Ecuador)


No recommendations were rejected.



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